Iranian prevalence of convergence / accommodative disorders

The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of accommodative and convergence disorders in an optometric clinical population and ascertain tests with the highest sensitivity and specificity in detecting these anomalies. The authors gathered information on symptoms, near...

Association of asthenopia and heterophoria

Heterophoria varies over time and asthenopic symptoms may be greater when the heterophoria is larger. Thus a close intra-individual correlation may exist between heterophoria and discomfort during reading. The authors investigated the variability of both parameters in 20 individuals who...

A case report of bidirectional aberrant upward eye movement

The authors present a case report of a 14-year-old boy with left ptosis and strabismus since childhood. In primary position he had left hypotropia with ptosis. On elevation of the right eye, the left eye depresses and adducts. Conversely, on...

Dyslexic reading improved by vergence training

The aim of this study was to evaluate if reading performance could be improved by a period of compensatory vergence training in dyslexic children with otherwise normal binocular vision. The study included 13 children with dyslexia – mean age of...

Glasses or not?

In this excellent review article, the authors discuss how some hyperopes avoid strabismus but also ask why the youngest infants escape strabismus and older patients go on to decompensate. The review considers a number of related aspects and their inter-relations...

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