Distance esotropia due to excessive near work

The authors aimed to review cases with divergence insufficiency esotropia in 12 young adults associated with excessive near work. Patients were aged 28.17 ±4.06 years and had normal external, anterior / posterior segment examinations and no neurological signs. Ten had...

Mediation of vertical vergence

The authors hypothesised that if vertical vergence were mediated by vertical rectus muscles, then the eye that moves during a vertical fusion task would produce larger vertical vergence when abducted versus adducted. Similarly, if mediated by the oblique muscles then...

Fusional vergence measurement

This paper reports a systematic review to address two objectives: 1, to compare the normative values of tests measuring fusional vergence; 2, to investigate sources of heterogeneity of prism accuracy. The review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines with a...

Prism adaptation outcomes in convergence excess esotropia

This study reports the changes to angle of deviation following prism adaptation in a group of 58 patients with convergence excess esotropia and their surgical outcomes. Age at prism adaptation was 7.2 (SD1.82) years. One child refused prisms and two...

Iranian values for childhood convergence

The authors aimed to determine near point of convergence (NPC) values in a population-based study in Iranian schoolchildren with a large sample size. They explored its relation to factors such as age, gender, refractive error and near point of accommodation....

AC/A measurement differences

The authors sought to investigate differences in stimulus accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio using various techniques and accommodative stimuli. The study included 81 orthoptic students; 15 males and 66 females with a mean age of 21 years ±1. Ocular deviation was...

Vertical disparity effects on horizontal fusion

This study was designed to investigate the effect of induced vertical disparity by prisms on horizontal fusional reserves at near distance. One hundred and seventy students were recruited and vertical disparity was induced by small vertical prisms of 0.5 and...

Testing fusional amplitude

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of varied testing distance and order of testing on fusion amplitudes in subjects with normal eye examinations, along with impact of examination encouragement and subject level of alertness. Average age...

Fusion vergence measures

The purpose of this study was to compare fusional vergence measurements between orthophoria, esophoria and exophoria and determine the strength of correlation between fusional vergence and angle of deviation. This was a cross-section study of 530 children aged six to...

Systematic review on vergence neural pathways

A full systematic review of the literature was carried out by the authors, to identify literature available on vergence neural pathways and associated disorders. The review included articles related to vergence neural pathways, along with articles that discussed the anatomy,...

PALs use for convergence excess esotropia

This retrospective study includes a disparate group of 39 esotropic patients with an accommodative element from two different clinics with differing prescribing practices. Seven children were excluded due to previous treatment or insufficient follow-up. In all patients single vision glasses...

Stimulus type vs. convergence measures

The aim of this study was to investigate if near point of convergence (NPC) would improve when a fixation target with centrally placed 3-D features (to increase binocular disparity stimulus) was used in comparison to a target using only centrally...

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