Long-term treatment of blepharospasm using Botulinum Toxin A

The authors report findings from a retrospective single-centre study which aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term botulinum A toxin (BAT) treatment in patients with blepharospasm (BPS). Blepharospasm is described as one of the most frequent types of...

Using video-oculography to record monocular eye movements

The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of monocular eye movements recorded using video-oculography (VOG). VOG monocular recording has become increasingly popular in comparison to electro-oculographic binocular recording, due to its simple technique. The authors evaluated the...

A case of ipsilateral fourth nerve paresis and Horner’s syndrome

The author presents a single case report of an exceptional association between fourth nerve palsy and ipsilateral Horner’s Syndrome. The case is presented alongside magnetic resonance images (MRI) which reveal a mass in the right cavernous sinus. The 54-year-old woman...

Benefit of selenium and vitamin D supplementation in thyroid eye disease

There is some limited evidence of as association between thyroid eye disease (TED) and nutritional deficiencies including selenium and vitamin D. Prior studies show that selenium can reduce TPO-antibody concentrations and improve hypothyroidism and post-partum thyroiditis. Limited evidence also shows...

Link between compression of anterior visual pathway structures and visual deficit

The compression of anterior visual pathway (AVP) structures can be observed on neuroimaging. It is not clear whether or not this compression results in damage to these structures. The authors present a single centre retrospective case record review over the...

Choroidal vascularity in NAION

The authors present a cross-sectional, non-interventional study of healthy volunteers and those with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) recruited over a six-month period at a single site. NAION is the most common cause of acute optic neuropathy over the...

Recognising clinical characteristics of blepharospasm

Focal dystonia is regarded as a characteristic feature of blepharospasm, but patients do not always present with these motor symptoms. The authors present a retrospective analysis of data from a large number of patients treated for drug-induced or essential blepharospasm...

Using graphical illustration to predict giant cell arteritis

A nomogram is a chart or graph of scaled variables that facilitates the approximate computation of a mathematical function via intersecting lines. The objective of this study was to illustrate the use of a nomogram for the prediction of giant...

Investigation of blood platelet parameters in anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy

The aim of this clinical retrospective comparative study was to assess the possible relationship between arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AAION) and non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) with blood platelet parameters and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). The medical records of...

Paraneoplastic optic neuropathy features

This is a retrospective review of seven patients diagnosed with paraneoplastic optic neuropathy (PON) between January 2015 and June 2017. Five patients had a history of primary malignancy, including papillary thyroid carcinoma, type B thymoma, testicular seminoma and lung carcinoma....

Thyroid eye disease and obstructive sleep apnoea

This is a retrospective study looking for an association between compressive optic neuropathy in thyroid eye disease (TED-CON) and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). One hundred and nine patients with thyroid eye disease were asked to complete a validated questionnaire designed...

Cavernous sinus thrombosis and orbital cellulitis

This is a report of six cases of combined orbital cellulitis and infective cavernous sinus thrombosis, with a literature review. The average age was 39 years, four were male and two were intravenous drug users. All had sinusitis, usually involving...