Iranian values for childhood convergence

The authors aimed to determine near point of convergence (NPC) values in a population-based study in Iranian schoolchildren with a large sample size. They explored its relation to factors such as age, gender, refractive error and near point of accommodation....

AC/A measurement differences

The authors sought to investigate differences in stimulus accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio using various techniques and accommodative stimuli. The study included 81 orthoptic students; 15 males and 66 females with a mean age of 21 years ±1. Ocular deviation was...

Vertical disparity effects on horizontal fusion

This study was designed to investigate the effect of induced vertical disparity by prisms on horizontal fusional reserves at near distance. One hundred and seventy students were recruited and vertical disparity was induced by small vertical prisms of 0.5 and...

PALs use for convergence excess esotropia

This retrospective study includes a disparate group of 39 esotropic patients with an accommodative element from two different clinics with differing prescribing practices. Seven children were excluded due to previous treatment or insufficient follow-up. In all patients single vision glasses...

Iranian prevalence of convergence / accommodative disorders

The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of accommodative and convergence disorders in an optometric clinical population and ascertain tests with the highest sensitivity and specificity in detecting these anomalies. The authors gathered information on symptoms, near...