A full systematic review of the literature was carried out by the authors, to identify literature available on vergence neural pathways and associated disorders. The review included articles related to vergence neural pathways, along with articles that discussed the anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of vergence for a wide range of studies. Results are presented and discussed with reference to convergence and divergence disorders, and their causes and neural anatomy outlined. Literature reported intracranial pathologies affecting entire neural functioning were found to cause convergence insufficiencies. Those pathologies with a more localised intracranial lesion were reported as causing more specific vergence disorders. A need for more detailed information on the divergence pathway was identified, the review finding that evidence in the area of divergence pathways was lacking. This review discussion improves understanding of vergence mechanisms which will add to a clinicians’ knowledge base for vergence deficits and the related anatomy.