The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of accommodative and convergence disorders in an optometric clinical population and ascertain tests with the highest sensitivity and specificity in detecting these anomalies. The authors gathered information on symptoms, near point of convergence, heterophoria and near and distance, monocular and binocular accommodative facility with +/-2DS flipper lenses, accommodative amplitude, positive and negative relative accommodation, lag of accommodation, AC/A ration, plus positive and negative relative fusional vergences. Eighty-three patients were assessed with a mean age of 21.3 ±3.5 years. Frequency of accommodation and non-strabismic binocular disorders was 19.3%: accommodative disorders in 7.2% and binocular dysfunctions in 12.1%. Accommodative excess was the most frequent disorder followed by accommodative insufficiency. The most prevalent binocular disorder was convergence insufficiency and convergence excess, followed by basic exophoria. Of the subjects, 14.5% were symptomatic. Tests of monocular and binocular accommodative facilities had the highest sensitivity and specificity values. 

Frequency of convergence and accommodative disorders in a clinical population of Mashhad, Iran.
Hoseini-Yazdi SH, Yekta A, Nouri H, et al.
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Fiona Rowe (Prof)

Institute of Population Health, University of Liverpool, UK.

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