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Diffuse lamellar keratitis

This study group reviewed cytokine- and chemokine-mediated mechanisms of diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) after lamellar corneal surgical procedures. DLK can occur early or late (months to decades) after all lamellar corneal surgeries, including laser in situ keratomileusis, small incision lenticule...

Corneal dystrophies simplified

Based on biomicroscopic and histopathologic features, corneal dystrophies can be broadly classified into epithelial, Bowman’s layer / anterior stromal, stromal, and endothelial dystrophies. Corneal dystrophies are a group of inherited, bilateral, gradually progressing, non- inflammatory conditions caused by accumulation of...

MicroRNAs in cataract

In an ageing population cataract formation is one of the leading causes of blindness. Cataracts are caused by a failure to clear accumulating aggregated proteins in the lens. MicroRNAs are small non-coding transcripts which bind to specific mRNAs acting at...

Limbal melanocytes and the stem cell niche

The cornea is continually regenerated to maintain clear vision, due to a population of stem cells located in the limbal region between the cornea and the conjunctiva. These limbal stem cells (LESC) reside in crypts in structures called the Pallisades...

Autophagy in lens mitochondria loss

The lens consists of a monolayer of epithelial cells that overlies fibre cells that differentiate from epithelial cells at the equator. While developing, fibre cells need mitochondria to provide energy, as they mature they lose these and other organelles to...

Dec/Jan 2017 Quiz

History An 18-month-old boy presented with a slow growing left anterior orbital lump medially. Examination revealed a palpable mass beneath the skin at the inferonasal aspect without any visual impairment. A CT scan (Figure 1) followed by an excisional biopsy...

Feb/Mar 2019 Quiz

History A 31-year-old female patient presented with history of gradual downward displacement of the globe over the last six months. The superotemporal mass then became palpable (Figure 1). Lateral orbitotomy was performed following CT scans (Figure 2). Figure 1. Figure...

In vivo confocal microscopy, principles and use in keratitis Part 1: Principles

In 1968 Maurice introduced the concept of high powered specular microscopy, it was in that very year that the first scanning confocal microscope was proposed. Marvin Minsky developed the first confocal microscope in 1955 named the ‘double focusing scanning microscope’....

Therapy for limbal stem cell deficiency: cell fate after limbal stem cell transplants

“The beauty of scientific research lies in that the search for answers often yields yet more questions.” A large body of evidence points to the corneoscleral limbal location as the repository of putative epithelial stem cells [1]. Thoft proposed the...

Air toxicity on retinal pigment epithelium

This study investigated the potential toxic effects of air on primary human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vitro. Clinically during pars plana vitrectomy air is used as either a temporary tamponade during air-fluid exchange or mixed with gas to...

Resurfacing the ocular surface

The ocular surface (OS) is an anatomical and functional unit made of the tear film, the conjunctival, limbal and corneal epithelium, the lacrimal, mucous and meibomian glands and the lids and blink reflex. The tear film is composed of a...

Understanding amniotic membrane grafts

Safa Elhassan gives a brief review of amniotic membrane grafts and their application in theatre and clinic-based settings. Amniotic membrane (AM) transplant has been an established adjuvant treatment for many corneal, conjunctival and scleral disorders in ophthalmic clinical practice with...