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Fusion vergence measures

The purpose of this study was to compare fusional vergence measurements between orthophoria, esophoria and exophoria and determine the strength of correlation between fusional vergence and angle of deviation. This was a cross-section study of 530 children aged six to...

A practical guide to anisocoria

Anisocoria means the presence of difference in the size of the right and left pupils. It is a sign of an abnormality in the efferent pathway. The first question facing the ophthalmologist is to ascertain if anisocoria is present or...

A log in the eye

"My friend wanted to show how far he could throw that log. So, he helicoptered it over his head, faster and faster and when he let go, it hit my eye at full speed,” a young lady of 19 years...

Understanding vasoproliferative retinal tumours

Syed Irtiza Ali Shah explores this rare and unusual condition through a fascinating case presentation. Vasoproliferative tumours of the retina (VPTR) are a vascular mass with an associated exudative retinopathy alongside the presence of minimally dilated feeder vessels. This is...

Chronic dacryocystitis?

Lacrimal drainage system tumours are rare and lymphomas account for less than 10% of these tumours [1]. Most patients presenting with lymphoma infiltration of the lacrimal drainage system have a history of previously diagnosed lymphoma elsewhere. We report a case...

Aug/Sep 2014 Quiz 1

History A 50-year-old female with a history of smoking, weight loss and cough presents to the ophthalmology clinic with a distorted pupil. Examination reveals a mass on the surface and within the iris (see Figure 1). The ophthalmologists decide to...

Type 3 CNV and anti-VEGF

The purpose of the study was to determine the differences between aflibercept and ranibizumab in terms of their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of Type 3 neovascularisation. The authors highlight that the dominant mechanism for Type 3 neovascularisation development is...

Neovascular AMD: fresh recommendations underline standards of best practice

The management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) has advanced dramatically over the past seven years, with the introduction of targeted new therapies that successfully maintain or improve vision in a majority of affected individuals. It’s a fast moving field,...

Disseminated cutaneous zoster – a masquerade

Reactivation of varicella zoster infection in the elderly commonly presents to ophthalmologists as herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO), affecting the Va trigeminal dermatome. In patients with impaired immunity, zoster infection occurs with increased severity and may be complicated by visceral and...

Toxoplasmosis and the associated retinochoroiditis: important facts and when to treat

Annie SeeWah Tung provides an overview of toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis, including guidance on which cases should be treated and the treatment options. Toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis is an infectious condition that is characterised by retinochoroidal lesions commonly in the posterior pole and is...

Choroidal melanoma – breaking bad news

Case report A 55-year-old Caucasian female presented to her general practitioner with a three-month history of headaches and worsening blurred vision in the left eye. On further close questioning, she reported no eye pain, intermittent floaters and flashes of light...

Oct/Nov 2015 Quiz

History A 16-year-old female presents with bilateral ocular irritation. The patient has a history of seasonal rhinitis and eczema and complains of itchy eyes, especially during the summer months. Examination shows bilateral mucoid discharge, conjunctival injection and eversion of both...