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Strabismus in thyroid eye disease

Pathogenesis Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an auto-immune condition, in the initial phase there is lymphocytic infiltration and oedema of the extraocular muscles with deposition of glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid and adipogenesis, which can lead to an increase in the...

Cataract surgery in uveitis patients

Cataract formation is a common complication of uveitis, causing up to 40% of vision loss in these patients. Cataract results from inflammation +/- corticosteroid therapy and is usually posterior subcapsular, but a small proportion have a rapid increase in nuclear...

The results of the last survey Apr23

*Please be aware that this data does not form part of a peer reviewed research study. The information therein should not be relied upon for clinical purposes but instead used as a guide for clinical practice and reflection. My thanks...

Quiz Dec/Jan 2023

History A 35-year-old female presented to the emergency eye clinic with an acutely red, painful, photophobic left eye. She was a contact lens-wearer but denied swimming, showering, or sleeping in her lenses. She resided on a farm and worked as...

Immunoglobulin G4-related ophthalmic disease – what is it? (Part 2)

Part 2: Clinical presentation and treatment (see part 1 here) Introduction IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is understood to have a vast clinicopathological spectrum; nearly every organ has had reported involvement. Similarly, IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) is known to affect nearly every...

Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy: from lab to clinic

Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) was the first clinically described mitochondrial disorder (1871). This article reviews the pathophysiology and clinical features of LHON with a focus on translational research. G11778A is currently the most common mutation worldwide and is associated...

The past and the future for paediatric ophthalmology

The past 25 years have seen remarkable advances in clinical eye care for children in the UK. This has led to both improved outcomes and better patient and family experiences. There have been substantial changes to patient pathways, major advances...

Fusarium keratitis in a patient with alcohol dependence

Treatment of fungal keratitis secondary to the Fusarium species remains a challenge. Although relatively more common in warmer climates, this corneal infection is rare in the UK. Most cases have been reported in farmers and are often preceded by trauma....

Demyelinating optic neuropathy

Introduction Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammatory process affecting the optic nerve. After glaucoma, it is the most common optic neuropathy affecting patients under the age of 50. The usual presentation of typical ON is unilateral subacute loss of vision...

Headaches in ophthalmology (part 1)

Ophthalmologists see a large number of patients with headaches or facial pain in the ophthalmic outpatient clinics or in emergency clinics. Over two articles, I will discuss several causes of headaches, ocular manifestations and proposed management and referral options. It...

Feb/Mar 2017 Quiz

History A 40-year-old male patient presented with a right lower eyelid swelling with gradual enlargement for two months. On examination there was a large lesion apparently involving lid margin, part of palpebral conjunctiva and skin. No other local or systemic...

Developments in oculoplastic surgery

A study of NHS practice demonstrated significant patient-reported quality-of-life improvements from commonly performed oculoplastic operations: entropion repair, ectropion repair, ptosis repair and dacrocystorhinostomy (DCR) [1]. In recent years, surgical and non-surgical approaches to functional and aesthetic oculoplastic surgery have advanced...