You searched for "proptosis"

3006 results found

Strabismus in thyroid eye disease

Pathogenesis Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an auto-immune condition, in the initial phase there is lymphocytic infiltration and oedema of the extraocular muscles with deposition of glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid and adipogenesis, which can lead to an increase in the...

MicroRNA mediate retinoblastoma signal transduction

MicroRNAs (miR) are small non-coding single-stranded RNA molecules, normally 22 nucleotides long. There is a large family of miR that control protein expression by binding to mRNAs, leading to their degradation. One important role of miR is in tumours where...

Erythropoietin in healing corneal epithelial defects in rabbits

Corneal epithelial defects heal slowly in patients with diabetes, limbal stem cell deficiency and severe chemical burns. Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone that promotes red blood cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of erythroid progenitors as well as nonhematopoietic cells. In...

PD-1 and retinal ganglion cell death

Death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in conditions like glaucoma leads to permanent visual loss. RGC death can be due to the initial stress such as raised intraocular pressure or secondary to mechanism such as oxidative stress. Programmed cell death-1...

Periocular sweat gland carcinomas

This is an interesting review of a rare group of tumours which together comprise the adnexal sweat gland carcinomas. Although there are only 22 patients, this is the largest cohort ever published. The authors summarise the clinical presentation, stage, management...

Non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy in the Asian population

This article provides an evaluation of changes in visual function associated with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) among Korean patients. Visual changes were identified as a reduction in visual acuity by three Snellen lines or a deterioration of visual...

Risks factors for graft preparation failure in DMEK

Diabetes mellitus (DM) makes it more difficult to prepare descemet membrane epithelial keratoplasty (DMEK) grafts due to the ‘stickiness’ of Descemet’s membrane. This retrospective study examined a classification system, where donors were scored points according to their DM related risk...

Don’t ignore the black lesion! It might be mucormycosis

Keeping mucormycosis infection in the foreground of your differential diagnosis, especially in those more vulnerable patients, will help save their lives if recognised and managed appropriately. Mucormycosis is a fulminant infection caused by the fungi of the family Mucoraceae. It...

Review of paediatric infectious endophthalmitis

This paper presents a review on paediatric infectious endophthalmitis and considers aetiology, prognosis and management. Classification included exogenous and endogenous. Diagnosis was based on presenting history, signs and symptoms, cultures and imaging. Exogenous cases included postoperative endophthalmitis (strabismus surgery, glaucoma...

Smoking and Behçet’s disease

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between smoking and prognosis of ocular Behçet’s disease (BD). Records of 202 patients with ocular features of BD were reviewed from a Turkish hospital. Patients were divided into two groups according to their...

Tear film thickness after treatment with artificial tears in patients with moderate dry eye disease

In recent years artificial tear drops addressing tear film osmolarity have come onto the market. Increased tear evaporation and reduced tear volume results in tear hyperosmolarity. This triggers an inflammatory process leading to apoptosis of goblet and epithelial cells. Trehalose,...

Ovarian hormones drive onset of Sjogren’s disease in mice

Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) is a debilitating, sight-threatening, systemic autoimmune disease with no effective treatment available. SS is characterised by lacrimal gland lymphocytic infiltration and epithelial cell death, as well as by the presence of serum autoantibodies. Patients have severe dry...