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Herpes zoster ophthalmicus: a clinician’s perspective

Introduction Herpes zoster, commonly known as shingles, is caused by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). The term herpes is derived from a Greek work, herpein, which means ‘creeping’ and the word zoster means a belt or a girdle...

Uveitis Second Edition

This book is a comprehensive source of information on the subject of uveitis. The target audience includes ophthalmologists, allied health professionals with special interest in this area and general physicians treating patients with multisystem inflammatory disease with involvement of the...

RPE use similar pathway to regulatory T cells to inhibit immune response

Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells form an important part of the blood-retinal barrier that protects the neuronal cells responsible for sight. RPE cells are involved in innate and adaptive immune responses via expression of surface molecules and release of cytokines....

Differential diagnosis of inflammatory optic neuritis

The authors present the differential diagnosis of inflammatory optic neuritis (ON) to include multiple sclerosis, infectious optic neuritis, systemic disease and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). The features of ON for the varying aetiologies are detailed including incidence and overlap. In acute...

Incidence of ocular myasthenia gravis and risk factors for conversion to generalised disease

This population based retrospective cohort study evaluates the incidence of ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) as well as risk factors for transformation to generalised myasthenia gravis (GMG). Sixty-five patients (40 male and 25 female) with newly diagnosed with myasthenia gravis (MG)...

A complicated case of cytomegalovirus viremia: “What would you do doctor?”

Mrs W walked gracefully into my urgent care clinic. It was another busy session and I hoped she did not have anything serious going on which might slow the clinic further. She was an elegant 72-year-old lady who seemed like...

Ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid: the importance of early detection and treatment

Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is an autoimmune blistering disorder that is characterised by subepithelial bullae. The ocular manifestation of MMP, ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid (OMMP), is a sight-threatening condition characterised by conjunctival cicatricial changes associated with corneal vascularisation and scarring....

IVTA use in Behçet’s disease

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) injection (4mg/0.1ml) in controlling posterior segment inflammation in patients with Behçet’s disease. Medical records of consecutive patients diagnosed with Behçet’s who underwent IVTA between July 2005...

Methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil for non-infectious uveitis

This is the first reported randomised clinical trial comparing methotrexate versus mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for the treatment of non-infectious intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis or panuveitis. To be eligible for recruitment, patients had to be on ≥15mg oral prednisone and demonstrated...

Aquaporin-4 antibody testing in isolate optic neuritis

The authors present a retrospective case review of first presentation isolated cases of optic neuritis tested for aquaporin-4 antibody across two centres over a nine-year period. Exclusion criteria included known diagnosis or other manifestations of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Two...

Epiretinal membranes in uveitic macular oedema

Epiretinal membrane (ERM) formation in uveitic macular oedema is a fairly common structural complication of the retina. The authors describe a retrospective case series of 104 eyes of 77 patients with uveitic macular oedema from a tertiary centre. The treatment...

Ocular manifestations of Whipple’s disease

In this retrospective review of 217 patients with Whipple’s disease (WD), the authors reviewed the presentations of those with ocular manifestations. Ocular signs of WD are under recognised, frequently resulting in misdiagnosis and mismanagement. Mayo Data Explorer, a Mayo Clinic...