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Vitreoretinal Disease: Diagnosis, Management and Clinical Pearls (second edition)

A comprehensive, well-illustrated and highly informative resource providing excellent descriptions of vitreoretinal diseases, their presentation, diagnosis and management. The 40 chapters are grouped into four sections, namely: the Anatomy and Physiology of the vitreous, retina, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium;...

A single intravitreal bevacizumab in the treatment of breast carcinoma related choroidal metastasis

Case report Choroidal metastasis represents a common form of intraocular malignancies occurring in up to 10% of patients with systemic metastasis [1]. The most common primary sites of ocular metastasis are breast carcinoma in women and lung carcinoma in men,...

A log in the eye

"My friend wanted to show how far he could throw that log. So, he helicoptered it over his head, faster and faster and when he let go, it hit my eye at full speed,” a young lady of 19 years...

Sclerochoroidal calcification masquerading as ocular malignancy

Case 1 A 68-year-old Caucasian gentleman was urgently referred to eye casualty by his optometrist after seeing an unusual incidental finding of protruding lesions from the retina, suspecting choroidal melanoma. He was asymptomatic and this was his first eye test...

Oct/Nov 2014 Quiz

History 12-year-old cattle herder in Bangladesh. Loss of vision right eye – over 2/12 to no perception of light (NPL). B-scan showed choroidal thickening. Suspected to be choroidal ‘tumour’. Enucleated. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5....

Choroidal melanoma – breaking bad news

Case report A 55-year-old Caucasian female presented to her general practitioner with a three-month history of headaches and worsening blurred vision in the left eye. On further close questioning, she reported no eye pain, intermittent floaters and flashes of light...

The embryology of the eye

Nobody claims to like embryology. At least nobody I know. It has been a neglected part of the curriculum since time immemorial and a vicious cycle occurs in which those with an incomplete understanding fail to appreciate the inherent beauty...

Complement Factor H and Factor H-Like protein are expressed in human RPE cells

The role of inflammation in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is well documented and the association of AMD with the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and members of the complement system underline the role of complements in AMD. Human complement factor...

Migraine attack: does retinal and peripapillary blood flow change?

This prospective clinical study compared retinal and peripapillary blood flow parameters in migraine patients during an attack with healthy controls using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). OCTAs were performed on 52 eyes from 26 migraine sufferers and 48 eyes from...

Macular pigment and dark adaptation in older population with normal maculas

Macular pigment (MP) such as lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin are highly concentrated in the fovea. They protect the retina from damage of ambient blue light via antioxidant properties. In older eyes with normal healthy retina, macular pigment optical density (MPOD)...

The management of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy

Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a common retinal disease characterised by one or more serous neurosensory detachments. Patients present with acute onset blurring of vision, metamorphopsia and / or central scotomas. The condition is six times more common in men...

Choroidal and macular thickness in nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy

This study evaluates the choroidal and macular thickness in patients with chronic nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION). Two groups of subjects were compared, group one included 20 eyes with chronic NA-AION and group two, 31 healthy control eyes. The...