You searched for "proptosis"

3293 results found

PD-1 and retinal ganglion cell death

Death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in conditions like glaucoma leads to permanent visual loss. RGC death can be due to the initial stress such as raised intraocular pressure or secondary to mechanism such as oxidative stress. Programmed cell death-1...

Risks factors for graft preparation failure in DMEK

Diabetes mellitus (DM) makes it more difficult to prepare descemet membrane epithelial keratoplasty (DMEK) grafts due to the ‘stickiness’ of Descemet’s membrane. This retrospective study examined a classification system, where donors were scored points according to their DM related risk...

Prognosis prediction using clinical findings for fourth nerve palsies

The authors present a retrospective review of a cohort of patients diagnosed with fourth cranial nerve palsy with more than six months follow-up, over a 10-year period at a single centre. Thirty-five patients were included in the study, and spilt...

Review of paediatric infectious endophthalmitis

This paper presents a review on paediatric infectious endophthalmitis and considers aetiology, prognosis and management. Classification included exogenous and endogenous. Diagnosis was based on presenting history, signs and symptoms, cultures and imaging. Exogenous cases included postoperative endophthalmitis (strabismus surgery, glaucoma...

Smoking and Behçet’s disease

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between smoking and prognosis of ocular Behçet’s disease (BD). Records of 202 patients with ocular features of BD were reviewed from a Turkish hospital. Patients were divided into two groups according to their...

Tear film thickness after treatment with artificial tears in patients with moderate dry eye disease

In recent years artificial tear drops addressing tear film osmolarity have come onto the market. Increased tear evaporation and reduced tear volume results in tear hyperosmolarity. This triggers an inflammatory process leading to apoptosis of goblet and epithelial cells. Trehalose,...

Ovarian hormones drive onset of Sjogren’s disease in mice

Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) is a debilitating, sight-threatening, systemic autoimmune disease with no effective treatment available. SS is characterised by lacrimal gland lymphocytic infiltration and epithelial cell death, as well as by the presence of serum autoantibodies. Patients have severe dry...

A review of chromosome 9p21 POAG susceptibility locus

Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a genetically complex disease and the overall phenotype is influenced by multiple traits including intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness and structural features of the optic nerve head. Therefore, genes affecting any of these...

Acute management of retrobulbar haemorrhage

The authors discuss the importance of rapid diagnosis and correct management of acute RBH presentation to avoid the risk of permanent blindness. Retrobulbar haemorrhage (RBH) is an ocular emergency that occurs due to arterial bleeding in the orbital cavity behind...

Retinoblastoma management update (part 1): clinical features, diagnosis and genetics

The first of a two part series, this article will discuss the clinical features, diagnosis and genetic aspects of retinoblastoma. Manoj Parulekar is based at Birmingham Children’s Hospital, one of the two designated national retinoblastoma and paediatric ocular oncology treatment...

An eye on novel anti-cancer agents: an evidence-based approach to external eye assessment

Novel anti-cancer therapies have led to significant advancement in cancer treatment, however, they can be associated with external eye complications. It is important to be mindful of such adverse effects during assessment of patients enrolled in clinical trials. Annually, approximately...

Cancer associated retinopathy

Abdul Muhyemin Tarin reviews the presentation, pathophysiology and management of this paraneoplastic syndrome. Case presentation A 60-year-old hypermetropic female patient presented with several months’ history of painless blurred vision. Visual acuity (VA) was 6/24 and 6/9-1 in right and left...