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Pathophysiology of diabetic macular oedema: why combination therapy may be better

The prevalence of diabetes has continued to increase over the years. It is currently estimated that there are 382 million with diabetes worldwide in 2013, and that this figure is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035 [1]. In...

The results of the last survey Dec20

The responses to the first question in this survey demonstrate the need for it and the significant variation in practice we see in even relatively simple management decisions. Patients are seen regularly with occludable drainage angles and listed for YAG...

The implementation of postoperative day 1 vitrectomy telephone follow-up consultations

In this pre-COVID-19 study, the authors argue that some follow-up consultations can be done by telephone without compromising patient safety. Thirty years ago, a study by Isernhagen et al. [1] found that 52% of patients required some form of unexpected...

Inner nuclear layer of the retina showing increase in thickness in diabetic macular oedema

Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. With optical coherence tomography (OCT), it has become possible to image the retina in vivo and to measure retinal oedema by measuring retinal thickness (RT) with...

Characteristics of limbal lymphatic vasculature on confocal microscopy

This ex vivo study aims to describe the morphological characteristics of the human limbal lymphatic vasculature using confocal microscopy and immunofluorescence. Twelve corneal specimens are obtained from human donor eyes. These corneal buttons are not suitable for transplantation due to...

Measuring patient-reported outcomes after refractive surgery to assess patient satisfaction

Patient-reported outcomes enable surgeons to evaluate patients’ symptoms and satisfaction after laser vision correction. The great majority of patients are pleased with their outcomes from laser vision correction, whether it is with photorefractive keratectomy, laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK), or small...

Long-term specular microscopy following Nd: YAG iridotomy in chronic POAG

The aim of this study was to evaluate specular microscopy of chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma (CPACG) eyes at least one year after Nd:YAG iridotomy, and compare them with CPACG eyes without an iridotomy and age-matched, normal eyes. Nd:YAG laser causes...

Essentials of OCT in Ocular Disease

Sir Isaac Newton was the first to establish the technique of low coherence white light interferometry. Following on from this, the principle of laser interferometry as an imaging modality for retina was applied by David Huang and his associates in...

Mimicked tumour seeding due to asteroid hyalosis

A case report is presented of a patient with treated retinoblastoma (RB) who later developed asteroid hyalosis which mimicked tumour seeding. The case was a 37-year-old male with presenting symptoms of vitreous floaters. A unilateral RB was diagnosed at the...

LASIK for myopia progression

The authors hypothesise that corneal reshaping with refractive surgery could have an effect on myopic progression similar to that of orthokeratology because it results in changes to the central cornea and not to the peripheral cornea. This was a retrospective...

A step-by-step approach to the diagnosis and management of Sands of Sahara Syndrome

Sands of Sahara syndrome (diffuse lamellar keratitis) is a rare postoperative complication of Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Its estimated prevalence is reported to be 2-4% among LASIK cases [1], despite that, it is more likely to be encountered by...

Endoscopic assisted probing for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction

In this retrospective study authors compare the success rate of nasal endoscopic-assisted probing between younger (three years and below) and older (three years and above) children with membranous nasolacrimal duct obstruction and its correlation with the thickness of the membrane...