Superior oblique sagittalisation

This paper reports two cases with anomalous posterior course of the superior oblique tendon with insertion nasal to the superior rectus tendon. Both presented with Brown syndrome-like clinical scenarios. The cases were a five-year-old female and four-year-old male. Diagnosis was...

Disc-fovea angle measurements for objective cyclotorsion review

The author measured the disc-fovea angle (DFA) in 249 healthy people (81 male, 168 female) as part of a retrospective study of 44 to 70-year-old adults. These were grouped as (1) aged 44 / 45 years, (2) aged 59-70 years,...

Ocular motility parameters in phakic and pseudophakic older people

The aim of this study was to compare the extent of phoria, strabismus and convergence of pseudophakic vs phakic people in an elderly population. The study was part of the Tehran Geriatric Eye Study (TGES). Of 3791 invitees, 3310 participated...

Does Duane syndrome have an effect on refractive error?

The authors present a retrospective case review from a database created from a 43-year period of patients with strabismus seen by a single ophthalmologist. Cases were reviewed by either an orthoptist or ophthalmologist for entry into the database. Details relating...

Optic disc pit maculopathy: an optical coherence tomography study

This was a single-centre, retrospective observational case series that aimed to analyse the change of optical coherence tomography (OCT) characteristics in the natural course of optic disc pit maculopathy (ODP-M) and their effects on visual acuity. Twenty-two eyes of 22...

Patient reported outcomes in adolescents with inherited retinal diseases

This was a two-centre validation study of two sets of patient reported outcome measures (PROMS) for adolescents (13-17- years-old) with inherited retinal diseases. The measures were the Michigan Retinal Degeneration Questionnaire (MRDQ) and the Michigan Vision-Related Anxiety Questionnaire (MVAQ). Both...

Effects of ML4 on the eye

Mucolipidosis type IV (ML4) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease and is caused by variants of the MC0LN1 gene. It often presents in young individuals with eye and ocular adnexa issues. The authors present a case report and literature...

Pain control during orbital implant surgery

This is a study based on existing evidence that pre-emptive pain control has advantages over traditional post-surgical analgesia. The authors compared pain scores in three groups of randomly assigned and masked patients all undergoing orbital implant surgery under general anaesthesia...

Narrative review of idiopathic intracranial hypertension in children / adolescents

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) affects both children and adults. Whilst the majority of IIH is mainly seen amongst adults, it also affects children. There are currently no clinical trials in IIH for those who are adolescents or children. The aims...

Agreeing terminology for non-classic visual field abnormalities

The authors present a prospective survey of neuro-ophthalmologists. The survey comprised of 10 visual fields. The selection of visual fields for the survey aimed for variety and excluded classic neuro-ophthalmology visual field defects, e.g. hemianopia, nasal step. The survey was...

Surgical management and review of congenital inferior rectus dysgenesis

Three cases are presented of congenital inferior rectus (IR) dysgenesis causing hypertropia. Case 1 was a two-year-old female with intermittent vertical strabismus of 20PD and -2 limitation on depression, worse in abduction. MRI imaging showed a hypoplastic IR. Following surgery,...

Brolucizumab in age-related macular degeneration, HAWK Study

The aim of the study was to collect additional data on efficacy and safety of brolucizumab 6mg intended for commercialization in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (with an increase in pH and decrease in polysorbate concentration). The HAWK Study was a...