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How to pass the Refraction Certificate

Unfortunately, I had the pleasure of getting to know this exam intimately. With adequate preparation this does not have to be the case for most people. The exam has recently changed to consist of 10 OSCE style stations (previously 12)....

Ocular electrophysiology

A 34-year-old woman, who is a CEO in a multinational firm, has been losing vision over the last 12 months. She has seen her opticians, who initially tried different glasses but could not improve things. Clinical examination is unremarkable. How...

More sensitive visual acuity test for age-related macular degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. Primarily associated with ageing, genetic factors and lifestyle choices such as smoking also play a contributory role. Patients with early AMD, characterised by the development of...

Somatostatin protects retinal pericytes

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes, caused by high blood sugar levels damaging the retinal microvasculature. Mechanisms, such as oxidative stress and deposition of advanced glycation end products, leads to glial cell activation and neuronal apoptosis. Pericytes, contractile...

The Gambia-Swansea VISION 2020 LINK: building eye care services and international friendships

History The VISION 2020 LINK between the Sheikh Zayed Regional Eye Care Centre (SZRECC), Banjul, The Gambia and the Ophthalmology Department, Singleton Hospital, Swansea started in 2008 under the guidance of the VISION 2020 LINKS Programme at the International Centre...

Optos plc, a Nikon company, unveils new technology at AAO

Optos plc, the leading medical retinal imaging company, part of Nikon Corporation, is pleased to announce that the newest generation Daytona, the only true ultra-widefield (UWF) imaging device was launched at the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Pituitary tumours: why are they so often missed?

Part 2: Clinical varieties, anatomical considerations and case report (see also Part 1 and Part 3) For ophthalmologists there are four types of pituitary tumour to be considered, three of which are named according to the hormone secreted, along with...

Paediatric spectacle dispensing: more than a frame and lenses

It’s incredibly rewarding to fit a child’s first pair of spectacles and see their face light up; looking around to see the wider world for the first time. Sometimes it is so obvious that even the most reluctant parent will...

Real-world experience and outcomes of SLT laser used as a first-line treatment in ocular hypertension patients in a United Kingdom National Health Service setting

The management of raised intraocular pressure (IOP) in the context of ocular hypertension (OHT) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) remains a major contributor to the workload of ophthalmology units across the UK. Treatment of these conditions has historically centred...

Commonest mistakes during the refraction certificate exam

Ophthalmology specialty trainees are required to pass the refraction certificate exam within the first two years of training. If one passes this exam before entering a training programme, this can add two points to the portfolio during applications. In this...

DIY IOP – does it work?

Measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) plays a major role in glaucoma care as IOP is a parameter, along with visual field progression and optic disc cupping used to assess treatment effect. While Goldmann tonometry (GAT) is the gold standard, it only...

Optic nerve swelling – your survival guide (part 1)

Assessment of optic nerve appearance and functions is a daily routine in neuro-ophthalmology. Following a recent high profile court case there has been a significant increase in the amount of referral to ophthalmology departments to assess the optic nerve and...