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Effect of preservative free fluoroquinolones on human corneal epithelial cells in vitro

Fluoroquinolones, including second generation (ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin), third generation (levofloxacin and tosufloxacin) and fourth generation (gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin), are a group of bactericidal agents used to treat multiple ocular infections. The third and fourth generation fluoroquinolones have enhanced Gram-positive activity...

Oct/Nov 2015 Quiz

History A 16-year-old female presents with bilateral ocular irritation. The patient has a history of seasonal rhinitis and eczema and complains of itchy eyes, especially during the summer months. Examination shows bilateral mucoid discharge, conjunctival injection and eversion of both...

Climatic droplet keratopathy

Climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK) is an acquired and potentially handicapping corneal degenerative disease that is highly prevalent in certain rural communities around the world. It predominantly affects males in their 40’s and is known by many other names such as...

Enzymatic clearance of anterior chamber infiltrate in uveitis

Aqueous humour (AH) which fills the anterior chamber (AC) of the eye provides nutrients to the cornea and the lens. Clearance of cellular and particular matter from AH is necessary for good visual acuity. In part this is achieved by...

Vision loss during Eylea treatment for AMD

This report investigated patients who lost more than two lines of vision despite periodic injections of aflibercept and explored the factors associated with vision loss. One hundred and ninety-six eyes were included in this study over a two year period....

EDTA chelation for band keratopathy

The authors describe a retrospective analysis of 89 eyes from 72 patients who underwent ethlenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) chelation for band keratopathy. The ratio of R:L eye was 41:48. The mean age was 71 years (range 18-93 years). Thirty-two out...

Laser corneal refractive procedures – a review

Evolution of refractive surgery stays true to the quote of Theodore Roosevelt: “The more you know about the past, the better prepared you are for the future.” Refractive surgery is an evolving field, which thanks modern technologies for refining ideas...

Ginko bilboa extract affects hypoxic retinal pigment epithelial cells

Wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterised by choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) formation. It is thought that localised hypoxia within the retina results in overexpression of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which induces CNVM formation. VEGF...

Troubleshooting in LASIK

Contemporary laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is safe and effective. It remains the dominant intervention in routine refractive surgery for a good reason: predictable results, rapid visual recovery, and relatively simple strategies for revision treatment. Over 95% of patients are...

MicroRNAs in cataract

In an ageing population cataract formation is one of the leading causes of blindness. Cataracts are caused by a failure to clear accumulating aggregated proteins in the lens. MicroRNAs are small non-coding transcripts which bind to specific mRNAs acting at...

Limbal melanocytes and the stem cell niche

The cornea is continually regenerated to maintain clear vision, due to a population of stem cells located in the limbal region between the cornea and the conjunctiva. These limbal stem cells (LESC) reside in crypts in structures called the Pallisades...

Autophagy in lens mitochondria loss

The lens consists of a monolayer of epithelial cells that overlies fibre cells that differentiate from epithelial cells at the equator. While developing, fibre cells need mitochondria to provide energy, as they mature they lose these and other organelles to...