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Optical coherence tomography – reinventing the eye examination

It has been 25 years since Huang et al. presented the first optical coherence tomography (OCT) images in Science [1]. With vast improvements in OCT technology over the years, it is now possible to acquire high-resolution cross-sectional images of the...

Retinoblastoma management update (part 1): clinical features, diagnosis and genetics

The first of a two part series, this article will discuss the clinical features, diagnosis and genetic aspects of retinoblastoma. Manoj Parulekar is based at Birmingham Children’s Hospital, one of the two designated national retinoblastoma and paediatric ocular oncology treatment...

Glaucoma diagnosis after paediatric cataract surgery

The authors undertook a retrospective review of patients with glaucoma after congenital cataract surgery and report clinical presentation, treatment and long-term outcomes at a tertiary referral centre. The study included 58 eyes of 42 patients of which 59% were male....

Changes in drusen and retinal layer volumes prior to CNV development

This retrospective longitudinal study looked at patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in one eye who subsequently developed wet AMD in the fellow eye. The aim was to discover whether drusen characteristics or volumes of retinal layers correlate with...

Effects of blood donation on the physiology of the eye

Hypovolaemia is a state of decreased blood volume, the reduction of which reduces tissue perfusion which may in turn lead to cellular hypoxia and end-organ damage. In blood donation, 500ml of blood is collected in ten minutes. This equates to...

Retinoblastoma management update (part 2): treatment, screening and surveillance, long-term follow-up and new developments

Retinoblastoma treatment requires significant multidisciplinary input, but early detection through raising awareness remains key to improving outcomes. In the second article of a two-part series, Manoj Parulekar discusses retinoblastoma management, screening and research. This article has been published in two...

A patient report of pseudoxanthoma elasticum, angioid streaks and choroidal neovascularisation

Angioid streaks (AS) on their own do not cause many problems, with the majority of patients remaining asymptomatic [1]. However, once choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) occurs, the visual prognosis of the patient rapidly declines [2]. Treatment is imperative to try and...

TED vertical strabismus surgery

This study reports the surgical experience with superior or inferior rectus resection to correct vertical strabismus associated with thyroid eye disease (TED). The study included eight female euthyroid patients (nine muscles) with mean age at surgery of 65±8.9 years and...

Benefit of selenium and vitamin D supplementation in thyroid eye disease

There is some limited evidence of as association between thyroid eye disease (TED) and nutritional deficiencies including selenium and vitamin D. Prior studies show that selenium can reduce TPO-antibody concentrations and improve hypothyroidism and post-partum thyroiditis. Limited evidence also shows...

Vitamin D and thyroid eye disease

This is a retrospective review of vitamin D levels in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED). Vitamin D levels in 89 patients with Grave’s disease and TED were compared against 89 patients with Grave’s disease and no TED. They also...

Outcomes of strabismus surgery for TED

This study investigated the surgical outcome according to the initial postoperative angle of deviation after strabismus surgery in patients with hypotropia and esotropia who had thyroid eye disease (TED). The study included 78 patients with mean age of 53.4 ±9.5...

IAC vs. IVC chemotherapy for RB

This a single centre retrospective review of consecutive patients between 1997 and 2014, of all sporadic unilateral retinoblastoma (RB) group D cases, treated with combined intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) and focal treatments (1997- 2008), or intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) treatment (2008 to...