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Strange Sequelae Succeeding ‘Surfer’s Eye’

Ophthalmologists in the UK are relatively infrequently faced with a patient requesting surgery for a pterygium. This condition is more common where ultraviolet exposure is greater, especially if coupled with activities associated with ocular surface irritation. For this reason, a...

The history of ophthalmology: John Argyll Robertson and Douglas Moray Cooper Lamb Argyll Robertson

The author shares the story of an extraordinary father and son, two of the major figures in defining the specialty of ophthalmology as we know it today. The renowned Glasgow Surgeon Peter Lowe described ophthalmic surgery in his legendary surgical...

The assessment of pupils and 
pupillary reactions

Understanding pupillary reactions is vital in understanding basic neuro-opthalmology. It is a skill required in eye casualty, clinics and perhaps most importantly, exams. To start at the beginning, the pupil is the central aperture of the iris, its size controlling...

Cavernous sinus syndrome

Anatomically the cavernous sinus is a plexus of multiple veins that are connected and within this plexus there are several important vascular and neurological structures. These include cranial nerves III, IV, V1 (and sometimes V2), VI as well as the...

It’s not always GCA

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an immune mediated granulomatous inflammatory disease that affects muscular middle or large sized arteries. It is considered as a continuation of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) when the severity of the disease has increased. It is the...

Upper eyelid ulceration as a presenting sign of frontal sinus mucocele

Introduction A sinus mucocele is an epithelium-lined sac filled with mucus and desquamated epithelium. It forms secondary to inflammatory processes that occur in a sinus with an obstructed ostium. Predisposing conditions include previous trauma, surgery, tumours, anatomical abnormalities, and chronic...

Ocular electrophysiology

A 34-year-old woman, who is a CEO in a multinational firm, has been losing vision over the last 12 months. She has seen her opticians, who initially tried different glasses but could not improve things. Clinical examination is unremarkable. How...

The last three patients: dermatology (Patient Three)

For the third and final reflection in this series (see Part 1 and Part 2), Professor Jonathan Rees recounts his experience of a patient with cancer who was failed by the NHS, and how their inadequate treatment illuminates some issues...

Ocular surface in donor eyes after CLAU

This retrospective study examined ocular surface stability of donor eyes following conjunctival limbal autografts (CLAU). Forty-five eyes underwent CLAU with chemical burns being the most common indication. All but two eyes had just over 4 o’clock hours of CLAU segment...

A novel integrated practice unit (IPU) approach to periocular skin cancer management

The COVID-19 pandemic was one of the biggest challenges to face NHS workers. However, history has repeatedly shown that times of difficulty can result in the development of significant social and technological advances. We describe our own experience of this...

Observership in Dar es Salaam

In this report, both authors present their personal experiences of an observership at the Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania (CCBRT) Hospital, a large regional teaching hospital located in Dar es Salaam, with a particular focus on resource management, attitudes...

Dec/Jan Quiz 2014

History A 25-year-old West African male presents with oral candidiasis, generalised lymphadenopathy and a red nodule in the left upper eyelid. This is biopsied. See histology images. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Questions 1. Describe Figure 1 (haematoxylin and...