Traumatic optic neuropathy

In neuro-ophthalmology we get asked a lot about management of patients who suffered significant trauma and presented with loss of vision secondary to presumed traumatic optic neuropathy (TON). TON happens usually in the context of significant craniofacial trauma. The incidence...

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH)

IIH is a medical condition where the intracranial pressure (ICP) is raised without an obvious cause. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced in by the choroid plexus in the lateral ventricles and the roof of the third and fourth ventricles,...

Cavernous sinus syndrome

Anatomically the cavernous sinus is a plexus of multiple veins that are connected and within this plexus there are several important vascular and neurological structures. These include cranial nerves III, IV, V1 (and sometimes V2), VI as well as the...

It’s not always GCA

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an immune mediated granulomatous inflammatory disease that affects muscular middle or large sized arteries. It is considered as a continuation of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) when the severity of the disease has increased. It is the...

Ophthalmology in the COVID-19 pandemic

The novel coronavirus pandemic has affected the whole world and forced all of us to think of new ways to manage our day to day personal as well as professional life. I am not going to talk about the clinical...

Non-organic visual loss

Patients can present to eye departments with various signs and symptoms (mostly symptoms) with no obvious organic cause. These patients can be labelled with any of a wide range of diagnoses such as functional visual loss, functional overlay, psychosomatic reaction...

Sixth nerve palsy versus decompensating distance esophoria

Orthoptists see a wide range of conditions that can range from reduced binocular single vision (BSV) that may be solved with exercises, to more extreme neurogenic cases requiring further intervention. Because of this variety, it is important to be able...

Typical or surprisingly uncharacteristic presentations of neuro-ophthalmic emergencies

Irrespective of geographical location or patient cohort, emergency departments are high risk locations capable of inspiring extreme anxiety and dread in patients and doctors alike. The stress multiplies when a walk-in or referred case is suspected of underlying neurological pathology....

Headaches in ophthalmology (part 2)

Ophthalmologists see a large number of patients with headaches or facial pain in the ophthalmic outpatient clinics or in emergency clinics. Over two articles, I will discuss several causes of headaches, ocular manifestations and proposed management and referral options. It...

Headaches in ophthalmology (part 1)

Ophthalmologists see a large number of patients with headaches or facial pain in the ophthalmic outpatient clinics or in emergency clinics. Over two articles, I will discuss several causes of headaches, ocular manifestations and proposed management and referral options. It...

What not to miss in neuro-ophthalmology Part 2

As mentioned previously there are several conditions in neuro-ophthalmology that should not be missed by the general ophthalmologist as well as ophthalmology trainees. We discussed in the first part some of these conditions including third cranial nerve palsies, giant cell...

What not to miss in neuro-ophthalmology Part 1

Neuro-ophthalmology is a complex and difficult subspecialty in ophthalmology. It has several connections to neurology, neuro-surgery, rheumatology as well as many other medical specialties. Working in an multidisciplinary team (MDT) environment is key to success in this subspecialty as mistakes...

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