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Under pressure: a tool to aid the 
non-ophthalmic practitioner in the timely management of acute angle closure

Acute angle closure is a true ophthalmic emergency that mandates timely diagnosis and treatment. The priority in initial management is to lower the intraocular pressure in an expeditious matter using medical treatments. The risk of irreversible glaucomatous optic neuropathy is...

Understanding spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS): what do we know?

Introduction Formerly known as visual impairment and intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP), space-related neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) is defined by a collection of ophthalmic and neurological findings in astronauts after long-term spaceflight [1]. Changes in the eyeball, such as hyperopic shift, during...

The results of the last survey Jun 2020

Firstly, my sincere thanks to those of you who responded to last edition’s survey. We had a record response. Laser was never my most exciting clinical treatment, but in this environment how I wish for even that degree of patient...

What not to miss in neuro-ophthalmology Part 2

As mentioned previously there are several conditions in neuro-ophthalmology that should not be missed by the general ophthalmologist as well as ophthalmology trainees. We discussed in the first part some of these conditions including third cranial nerve palsies, giant cell...

Acute management of retrobulbar haemorrhage

The authors discuss the importance of rapid diagnosis and correct management of acute RBH presentation to avoid the risk of permanent blindness. Retrobulbar haemorrhage (RBH) is an ocular emergency that occurs due to arterial bleeding in the orbital cavity behind...

Time is vision in central retinal artery occlusion

Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a rare but devastating vascular episode that can have severe impact on vision. Treatment is very time-limited and needs to be initiated very quickly to salvage any vision. The majority of patients present to...

Principles of management

Whatever section of pathology is to blame and wherever it strikes, the aim of treatment is always the same. Find the cause if you can. Establish the effects of the cause. Halt the pathological process if you can. Reverse its...

Optic nerve swelling – your survival guide (part 2)

In this second article we will discuss bilateral optic nerve swelling, its aetiology, various investigations and possible treatments. We will also discuss various protocols used in the management of suspected optic nerve swelling cases. (Part one of this topic available...

Aug/Sep 2014 Quiz 2

History A 27-year-old man presented to the emergency department with blurred vision and central scotoma in the right eye (RE) over the previous weeks. He had no relevant medical history and he was not on any current medication. However, he...

Chemical injury

You are the on-call ophthalmologist. You receive a call from A&E regarding a 45-year-old man who sustained a chemical injury. He was mixing some cement, when a small amount entered his left eye. He was not wearing any protective goggles....

End stage glaucoma management

A 48-year-old female has had multiple drug treatment for glaucoma and is still losing field of vision. How do you manage this over time? This patient is at high-risk for going blind and should be managed aggressively to protect remaining...

A career in uveitis

As he retires from clinical practice, the author looks back on his long career in uveitis and how care of these patients has changed dramatically since his days as an undergraduate. My trainees and fellows are often bored by my...