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OCT Angiography in Retinal and Macular Diseases

OCT angiography (OCT-A) is based on the concept that in a static eye, the only moving structure in the fundus of the eye is blood flowing through the vessels. This book explains how the technique allows a depth-resolved analysis and...

Association of pendular waveform and retinal disorders

The authors aimed to evaluate the relationship between retinal disorders and pendular low amplitude high frequency components (PLAHF) waveform by collecting nystagmus eye movement recordings, electroretinography (ERG) and gene tests. Retinal disorders were diagnosed by clinical phenotype and genotype characteristics....

PD-1 and retinal ganglion cell death

Death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in conditions like glaucoma leads to permanent visual loss. RGC death can be due to the initial stress such as raised intraocular pressure or secondary to mechanism such as oxidative stress. Programmed cell death-1...

Migraine and risk of retinal artery occlusion

This retrospective cohort study assessed whether migraine was associated with an increased risk of retinal artery occlusion. They reviewed a large insurance database of 418,965 patients who suffered with migraines between 2007 and 2016. These were then matched with an...

Retinal structural features of CMV retinitis

Confocal adaptive optics (AO) technology has enabled cellular level retinal imaging, including imaging of photoreceptors and blood flow. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) is a technology that provides high resolution and high contrast retinal images by correcting ocular aberrations....

BT for retinal detachment strabismus (2020)

The authors report updated experience on factors influencing botulinum toxin (BT) outcomes for strabismus following retinal detachment surgery. This was a retrospective review of 32 patients with follow-up of 20 months (1-132). Mean age at BT injection was 44 years...

Air toxicity on retinal pigment epithelium

This study investigated the potential toxic effects of air on primary human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vitro. Clinically during pars plana vitrectomy air is used as either a temporary tamponade during air-fluid exchange or mixed with gas to...

Retinal changes prior to hydroxychloroquine toxicity

In this retrospective longitudinal study, the authors examined changes in retinal layer thickness in patients taking hydroxychloroquine without evidence of retinopathy. Patients were drawn from a hydroxychloroquine screening clinic and required at least two OCT scans, at least one year...

An unusual case of acute retinal necrosis

Case report A 40-year-old Caucasian male presented with a four-day history of redness and progressive painless reduction of vision in the left eye. His visual acuities were 6/4 in the right and 6/36 in the left. The left eye showed...

The management of retinal vein occlusions: a summary

Retinal vein occlusions (RVO) are the most common cause of visual loss from retinal vascular disease second to diabetic retinopathy. Vision is lost due to ischaemia, macular oedema and / or haemorrhage which ultimately effects a patient’s quality of life...

OCT angiography and retinal vein occlusions

In this retrospective, observational case series, the authors set out to evaluate the morphology of the superficial and deep capillary plexa of eyes that suffered a retinal vein occlusion (RVO) on OCT angiography (OCTA) and compare the findings with fluorescein...

Acute retinal necrosis: an Indian experience

The authors of this retrospective study aimed to provide clinical outcomes in 62 eyes of 53 patients presenting with acute retinal necrosis. All eyes received intravenous acyclovir (10mg/kg tds) for 7-10 days followed by oral antiviral therapy (valaciclovir 1g tds...