You searched for "pupil"

246 results found

Pupil responses in diabetes

This study aimed to investigate pupillary involvement in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and to evaluate any relationship between severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and pupillary responses. Participants included 133 individuals in four groups: proliferative DR (n=21), non-proliferative...

Virtual reality pupil assessment software

For Oct/Nov 2021 we review a virtual reality (VR) solution for training and assessing pupil function. Different types of VR exist, and the application described here is used on the Oculus Quest or Pico headsets. The user wears a headset...

Pupil abnormalities after orbital surgery

This is a retrospective review of 287 patients who underwent removal of an orbital cavernous haemangioma (cavernous venous malformation), to ascertain the incidence of surgically induced pupillary abnormalities. Forty-four patients had lesions removed from the anterior or extraconal orbit, none...

The effect of caffeine on pupil size and accommodation

Twenty-two young and healthy participants were recruited in this study. The authors showed that pupil size increased as a result of caffeine consumption. A more stable (lower variability of accommodation) accommodative response (AR) was induced by caffeine intake, whereas the...

Clinical evaluation of a new pupil independent diffractive MIOL lens with a ±2.75D near addition

This is a clinical outcome assessment after cataract surgery with implantation of multifocal intraocular lens implant IOL with a lower near addition (+2.75D) of 143 eyes of 85 patients aged between 40 to 83 years of age. The type of...

Reflections of a Pupil: What Your Med School and Ophthalmology Textbooks Can’t Teach You (But What Your Mentors, Colleagues and Patients Will)

Reflections of a Pupil is a thought-provoking collection of anecdotes, clinical pearls and life lessons written by Ophthalmologist R Rishi Gupta. While ophthalmologists have a seemingly endless collection of textbooks to choose from to build their knowledge, this book offers...

A practical guide to anisocoria

Anisocoria means the presence of difference in the size of the right and left pupils. It is a sign of an abnormality in the efferent pathway. The first question facing the ophthalmologist is to ascertain if anisocoria is present or...

The assessment of pupils and 
pupillary reactions

Understanding pupillary reactions is vital in understanding basic neuro-opthalmology. It is a skill required in eye casualty, clinics and perhaps most importantly, exams. To start at the beginning, the pupil is the central aperture of the iris, its size controlling...

Corectopia grading

The authors present a novel corectopia classification system using 28 eyes of 28 patients with or without corectopia. The grading and classification system for corectopia was as follows: (i) Direction of decentration: superior (DecS), superonasal (DecSN), nasal (DecN), inferonasal (DecIN),...

A case report of alternating anisocoria with associated nasal congestion

The authors have described a group of healthy individuals who show alternating anisocoria, in a previous paper. In these cases, the pupil asymmetry alternates between eyes every few hours, with no observed instances when both pupils are equal in size....

Avoiding investigations through history taking and examinations to differentiate serious from comparably benign aetiology

*Joint first authors. Introduction Anisocoria can be a sign of neurological deficit, necessitating numerous investigations [1]. This case report explores how expensive and time-consuming investigations can be avoided by thorough history taking and examination to differentiate serious from comparably benign...

An unusual case of silicone oil in the anterior chamber simulating intraocular implant

Silicone oil internal tamponade has been used for over 50 years, even prior to pars plana vitrectomy [1].Over a course of time silicone oil may migrate to the anterior chamber through the pupil. This may disperse in the form of...