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Optical coherence tomography – reinventing the eye examination

It has been 25 years since Huang et al. presented the first optical coherence tomography (OCT) images in Science [1]. With vast improvements in OCT technology over the years, it is now possible to acquire high-resolution cross-sectional images of the...

“I can see fine. Why do I need my eyes tested?”

Are routine eye examinations really necessary? The author asks whether frequent appointments in low-risk patients with normal results are actually cost-effective. It’s recommended that most people should get their eyes tested every two years.” [1] This message is widely publicised...

The International Council of Ophthalmology: what is it and is it useful for UK ophthalmologists?

ICO Director for Examinations and Assessments, Simon Keightley, explains the history and role of the organisation today, as well as outlining recent changes to the ICO examinations. The International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) is the only international medical specialty organisation...

Emerging developments in dry eye

An estimated 344 million people worldwide suffer from dry eye [1]. This chronic syndrome is characterised by a vicious cycle of tear film hyperosmolarity, tear instability and corneal stress, leading to increased friction, inflammation, ocular surface damage and decreased visual...

What to expect when meeting a statistician

There are a growing number of statisticians working closely with ophthalmologists. They have different training but they are driven by the same goal: to perform high quality evidence based clinical research [1,2]. In a perfect world we would simply conduct...

The ‘art’ of refraction – designing a refraction course

Learning how to refract requires theoretical knowledge, practice and determination. Refraction is a notoriously challenging skill to acquire and the competing demands on junior ophthalmologists can often be restrictive of the development of this core skill. To consolidate theory learnt...

The screening and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity

A male child is born at 31 weeks and requires 100% oxygen supplementation with intensive care. What would be the ophthalmic management of this child? In the first instance, it will be useful to know the screening criteria and protocol....

Myasthenia gravis presenting with isolated ptosis: a poorly studied subgroup

Investigation into the cause of one isolated symptom or sign can be challenging if that particular sign may be caused by a variety of pathological processes, affecting different tissues, and presenting to different specialties. Unilateral ptosis is a case in...

Developing community eye care: the evolution of Wales’ eye care services

In the third in our series about community eye care in the home nations, David O’Sullivan explains how Wales has developed its community eye care services. Since the devolution of healthcare to Wales on 1 July 1999 [1], significant changes...

The interpretation and use of ultrasound biomicroscopy (part 1)

Ultrasound Biomicroscopy (UBM) has become increasingly important for the diagnosis of a variety of anterior segment pathologies. Most ophthalmologists are familiar with conventional B-scan ultrasonography techniques, which operate at lower sound frequencies (7.5 to 20MHz). UBM is an ultrasound technique...

How to examine the visual system Part 1: visual acuity, visual fields and eye movements

Asking candidates to perform an examination of the visual system, either as part of a full cranial nerve exam or as an individual entity, is a common station in practical examinations during medical school. It is important to practise for...

Developing community eye care: the GOS package in Scotland

In the second in the series about community eye care in the home nations, Janet Pooley explains how Scotland has developed its services within GOS. The United Kingdom has devolved healthcare; the powers were transferred from Westminster to Scotland and...