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Understanding spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS): what do we know?

Introduction Formerly known as visual impairment and intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP), space-related neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) is defined by a collection of ophthalmic and neurological findings in astronauts after long-term spaceflight [1]. Changes in the eyeball, such as hyperopic shift, during...

Mast cells in Graves’ ophthalmopathy

Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is a potentially sight-threatening ocular disease, occurring in patients with hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease. Also known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, GO is characterised by orbital infiltration by immune cells including macrophages, T cells and plasma cells, which...

Serology testing in periocular inflammatory disease

This is a review article of serological tests in thyroid eye disease, IgG4-related disease and myasthenia gravis. The authors provide an overview of the current serology with a brief description of how they relate to the pathogenesis of each condition....

Ocular ischaemic syndrome in a rat model

Ocular Ischaemic syndrome is a devastating eye disease caused by severe carotid stenosis. This study’s purpose was to develop a reliable rat model for this syndrome by subjecting rats to common carotid artery occlusion and sham surgery. Rats were assigned...

Headaches in ophthalmology (part 1)

Ophthalmologists see a large number of patients with headaches or facial pain in the ophthalmic outpatient clinics or in emergency clinics. Over two articles, I will discuss several causes of headaches, ocular manifestations and proposed management and referral options. It...

Traumatic ‘toy’ gun injury leading to permanent vision loss

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a progressive, inherited disorder of connective tissue that affects the skin, cardiovascular system and retina. Ocular manifestations of the disease are related to Bruch’s membrane, a thin elastic tissue layer located between the retinal pigment epithelium...

Cancer associated retinopathy

Abdul Muhyemin Tarin reviews the presentation, pathophysiology and management of this paraneoplastic syndrome. Case presentation A 60-year-old hypermetropic female patient presented with several months’ history of painless blurred vision. Visual acuity (VA) was 6/24 and 6/9-1 in right and left...

RPE tears after intravitreal Lucentis

The current hypothesis regarding retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tears is the contraction and fibrosis in choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) tissue after anti-VEGF therapy can induce rips in the overlying RPE. This South Korean study aimed to identify the association between RPE...

Risk factors and prognosis of paediatric open globe injuries

This retrospective, comparative, interventional case-control study was aimed to investigate possible risk factors and prognosis of initial no light perception (NLP) in paediatric open globe injuries (POGI). A total of 851 cases were reviewed, including 837 unilateral cases and 14...

OCTA in geographic atrophy

In this article the authors aim to give an overview of the current literature concerning the application of OCT-A in geographic atrophy (GA). GA is a disease characterised by loss of outer retinal layers including photoreceptors, degeneration of the retinal...

Microvasculature changes of mCNV after ranibizumab treatment using OCTA

In this study the authors aim to evaluate the vascular changes of myopic choroidal neovascularisation (mCNV) after ranibizumab treatment using optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCTA). The 3×3 OCTA en face images were analysed for the absence / presence of mCNV, CNV...

Diary from my elective: a Parisian experience

The author explains how a research institute’s dedication to multidisciplinary collaboration helped him to discover a passion for academic ophthalmology. The elective aspect to the final year of a medical degree, through its change of scenery and immersion into another...