Surgical technique for small-angle hypertropia

In order to treat small-angle hypertropia of <5PF associated with mild / moderate upshoot in adduction, an option is to suture the inferior oblique (IO) belly to the sclera following its natural muscle direction or with anterior transposition. This study...

AACE associated with excessive smartphone use

The purpose of this study was to describe a series of cases of acute acquired comitant strabismus (AACE) in children attending online classes on smartphones during the pandemic. Eight children were included with a mean age of 12.5 ±4.2 years....

BT outcomes for accommodative esotropia

The purpose of this study was to study the effect of Botulinum Toxin (BT) in refractive and non-refractive accommodative esotropia unresponsive to glasses and poor compliance with glasses. This was a retrospective study of 114 patients who had BT for...

Outcomes of horizontal muscle transplantation

The authors propose the technique of transplantation of the resected muscle segment to the previously recessed muscle for correction of residual / recurrent strabismus in order to restrict surgery to one eye and avoid large recession of previously recessed rectus...

Central fixation testing in microtropia

This study compared the two assessment methods of the 4D prism test and ocular fixation assessment in order to identify micro strabismus with identity. The study included 112 children; 46 males and 66 females. Anisometropia was present in 108 patients...

A case presentation of morning glory disc anomaly and peripapillary staphyloma

The purpose of this paper is to present a case of an 18-month-old girl initially presenting with strabismus. Fixation of the affected eye was intermittent with a relative afferent pupillary defect. A fundus photography of the affected left eye showed...

Distance esotropia due to excessive near work

The authors aimed to review cases with divergence insufficiency esotropia in 12 young adults associated with excessive near work. Patients were aged 28.17 ±4.06 years and had normal external, anterior / posterior segment examinations and no neurological signs. Ten had...

Long-term outcomes of recess / resect for sensory XT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate relationships between initial and long-term outcome of unilateral recess / resect surgery in adult sensory exotropia, factors associated with long-term outcome, exotropia drift and time to failure follow-up surgery. This was a...

Residual esotropia surgery comparisons

The aim was to compare lateral rectus resection and plication methods in patients with residual esotropia for postoperative success rate, dose response, ipsilateral medial rectus limitations and reoperation. The study included 57 patients (31 female, 26 male) with 27 plication...

Medial rectus anatomy in exotropia

This study investigates the differences between extraocular muscles in patients with intermittent exotropia and normal controls regarding muscle fibre arrangement and diameter, and distribution and activation of satellite cells. Fifteen patients were recruited having medial rectus resection surgery. Resection sections...

Outcomes of augmented surgery for exotropia

This was a prospective study to assess patients with basic type intermittent exotropia of 15-45PD in angle and who were operated with augmented bilateral lateral rectus recessions with conjunctival recession, and followed postoperatively for six months. The study included 15...

Prisms to treat AACE

Of 128 patients reviewed with binocular dysfunction, 30 (23.4%) had acute acquired concomitant esotropia (AACE). These patients complained of sudden onset diplopia at distance with no or moderate problems at near. There was no previous history of strabismus. Mean age...