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Effects of blood donation on the physiology of the eye

Hypovolaemia is a state of decreased blood volume, the reduction of which reduces tissue perfusion which may in turn lead to cellular hypoxia and end-organ damage. In blood donation, 500ml of blood is collected in ten minutes. This equates to...

Oral azithromycin for meibomian gland disease

Oral tetracyclines have been the traditional systemic treatment of blepharitis and acne rosacea, through inhibiting bacterial lipase production and reducing fatty acids. However, tetracyclines have a number of adverse side-effects and are required to be taken for a long duration...

Cavernous sinus syndrome

Anatomically the cavernous sinus is a plexus of multiple veins that are connected and within this plexus there are several important vascular and neurological structures. These include cranial nerves III, IV, V1 (and sometimes V2), VI as well as the...

A patient report of pseudoxanthoma elasticum, angioid streaks and choroidal neovascularisation

Angioid streaks (AS) on their own do not cause many problems, with the majority of patients remaining asymptomatic [1]. However, once choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) occurs, the visual prognosis of the patient rapidly declines [2]. Treatment is imperative to try and...

Injuries due to forceps delivery

A retrospective series is presented of injuries secondary to forceps delivery over a 15-year period in 11 cases: seven male and four female. Follow-up of cases was over two months to 17 years. Eight presented within one week of delivery,...

Eye Capacity: clinical need should drive ophthalmic service provision

Almost two million people in the UK suffer sight loss, a number forecast to double over coming decades. Major causes of blindness are age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, cataract and uncorrected refractive error. Prevalence of these sight-threatening conditions...

You want to do paediatric ophthalmology? Seriously?

Completion of Core Training is approaching fast and you begin to wonder three things. One, where do you want to live? Two, is anyone going to be retiring there soon? Three, what subspecialty do you want to do? In an...

Understanding spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS): what do we know?

Introduction Formerly known as visual impairment and intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP), space-related neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) is defined by a collection of ophthalmic and neurological findings in astronauts after long-term spaceflight [1]. Changes in the eyeball, such as hyperopic shift, during...

Differential inhibition of EAU by CTLA4 and IL-6

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) binds both CD80 and Cd86 and inhibits T lymphocyte activation via CD28. Il-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been associated with many autoimmune conditions including uveitis. Blockade of these molecules by either CTLA4-Ig, a...

PD-1 and PD-L1 in exenteration specimens

This is an immunohistochemical study looking at variation in the expression of the programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1) and the programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), comparing cutaneous malignancies which invaded the orbit with uncomplicated nodular basal cell carcinomas. The authors retrospectively...

If looks could kill – kohl and the eye

Simerdip Kaur takes a look at the latest ophthalmology-related news stories and asks which are based on facts and which are ‘fake news’. Headline: If looks could kill – kohl and the eye Human fascination with beautification can be traced...

Proning and the pandemic - ocular complications seen in critical care

Priyanka Sanghi and her co-authors explore the ocular complications seen in critical care units throughout the country as we treat patients through this challenging time. The SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed the NHS and critical care services under immense strain,...