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Diabetic Macular Oedema

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that affects the metabolism of all three categories of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. This condition is characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia [1]. This can cause end organ damage. The estimated worldwide diabetes prevalence for 2010...

End stage glaucoma management

A 48-year-old female has had multiple drug treatment for glaucoma and is still losing field of vision. How do you manage this over time? This patient is at high-risk for going blind and should be managed aggressively to protect remaining...

More sensitive visual acuity test for age-related macular degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. Primarily associated with ageing, genetic factors and lifestyle choices such as smoking also play a contributory role. Patients with early AMD, characterised by the development of...

In conversation with Robert MacLaren

Professor Robert MacLaren gave the Keeler Lecture at the Royal College of Ophthalmologists Annual Meeting in May 2019 on gene therapy for retinitis pigmentosa. We caught up with him afterwards to find out more. What are the key messages of...

Building capacity for diabetic retinopathy services in Malawi

Screening for diabetic retinopathy prevents blindness. There is no systematic screening programme for diabetic eye disease in Malawi and people present when they have lost vision and it is too late for treatment. The aim of the VISION 2020 LINK...

Lacrimal gland carcinoma

This is a major review of the management of lacrimal gland carcinoma, focusing mainly on adenoid cystic carcinoma. Relevant literature published in English since 1970 was included amounting to some 40 articles after filtering. Overall mortality for all lacrimal gland...

Meibomian gland alteration in patients with primary chronic dacryocystitis: An in vivo confocal microscopy study

Chronic dacryocystitis affects tear film functionality and can predispose to ocular surface disease, however the specific effect of chronic dacryocystitis on meibomian gland function has not been studied. This group therefore performed in vivo confocal microscopy in 28 patients’ eyes...

Psychiatric Consequences of Ophthalmic Disease

In part two of this series on ophthalmology and psychiatry, the authors will cover the possible psychiatric consequences of ophthalmic disease. The following conditions will be discussed: a. Black patch psychosis b. Psychological state in blindness c. Phobias in the...

Retinal prosthetics: science fiction or a vision for the future?

“Is it a fact – or have I dreamt it – that, by means of electricity, the world of matter has become a great nerve, vibrating thousands of miles in a breathless point of time?” – Nathaniel Hawthorne, The House...

A focus on Pakistan’s growing eye care needs: over 43 million patients treated for curable blindness free of charge

With 90% of the world’s visually impaired living in developing countries, Pakistan is no exception to this on-going global healthcare challenge. Despite massive leaps over the last few decades in targeting this issue, the World Health Organisation (WHO) reports that...

Paediatric spectacle dispensing: more than a frame and lenses

It’s incredibly rewarding to fit a child’s first pair of spectacles and see their face light up; looking around to see the wider world for the first time. Sometimes it is so obvious that even the most reluctant parent will...

Unconscious bias

Swansea University invited me to an Away Day. There was a whole day of lectures planned at a hotel conference suite just outside Swansea but due to clinic commitments I only caught the afternoon session; a ‘workshop’, on how to...