The purpose of this review was to consider data relating to risks and benefits of the use of anti-VEGF treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) over the past five years of 2015-2020. Ocular benefits include treatment of aggressive posterior ROP, vascularisation of peripheral retina after treatment and reduced incidence of high myopia. Ocular side-effects include abnormalities in peripheral retina and posterior pole, development of retinal detachment, greater potential for later recurrence than with retinal photocoagulation, asymmetric responses / outcomes and potential for anterior segment complications. Systemic side-effects include the confirmed presence of anti-VEGF drugs in systemic circulation after intravitreal injections. Further review sections include comparison of Bevacizumab and Ranibizumab, effect of decreased dosage on anti-VEGF therapy, anti-VEGF and laser combination therapy, and current clinical trials for ROP. The authors conclude that there remains a need for a large multicentre randomised control trial (RCT) with long-term follow-up of patients receiving anti-VEGF treatment for type I ROP and addressing the efficacy and safety of various anti-VEGF drugs.