The author presents a meta-analysis of published data to estimate American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) prevalence data for amblyopia risk factors. He extracted data from major paediatric comprehensive eye examination studies for children aged two to five years. Prevalence at AAPOS consensus thresholds for risk factors were: anisometropia (1.2%±2%), hyperopia (6%±1%), astigmatism with the rule and 15 degree against the rule (9%±1%), oblique astigmatism (6%±1%), myopia (0.5%±0.1%) and refraction total (23%±2%). Strabismus prevalence was 2%±0.3%. Prevalence of acuity failure of 20/40 or two inter eye line difference was 6%±1%. Total AAPOS risk factors were 31%±2%. Taking interactive risk factors into account reduces refractive and strabismic components to 16%±2%. Assuming 50% interaction with visual acuity and other combined risk factors yields a prevalence of 21%±2%.
Risk factors for amblyopia
Reviewed by Fiona Rowe
Amblyopia risk factor prevalence.
Fiona Rowe (Prof)
Institute of Population Health, University of Liverpool, UK.View Full Profile