This study reports on normative visual field area, feasibility and repeatability of testing for a large sample size of healthy children and young adults, using Octopus semi-automated kinetic perimetry. Sample included 221 healthy volunteers aged 5-22 years. The study was performed following a literature search which indicated stark disagreement on the rate of peripheral visual development and age of peripheral visual maturation. If semi-automated kinetic perimetry is to be performed in a clinical setting, availability of normative data for visual fields at a given age, expected ability and reliability is essential. Octopus kinetic perimetry is fast becoming the visual field test of choice in many clinics and as such, expected feasibility and normative visual field and blind spot data are required, especially for children. Reliable visual fields were plotted in 23% of participants <10 years, 64% of 10-12-year-olds and 98% aged 13-22 years. Reaction times reduced with age. Visual fields were assessed using I4e and I2e stimuli at 5°/second or 3°/second. Visual field areas were unchanged with age using 5°/second, but increased using 3°/second for I2e. Therefore, a test speed of 5°/second is recommended for healthy children and adults. The study found that participants aged 13 years or older and approximately 2/3 aged 10-12 years can reliably perform kinetic perimetry on the octopus perimeter. Although testing is possible with younger children, the authors recommend exercising caution when interpreting the test results from children under 13 years of age. 

Peripheral visual fields in children and young adults using semi-automated kinetic perimetry: feasibility of testing, normative data and repeatability.
Bjerre A, Codina C, Griffiths H.
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Claire Howard

Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Salford, UK.

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