The authors tested subjects with esotropia (13 constant esotropia, 16 fully accommodative esotropia and eight convergence excess) versus age-matched controls and 27 young adult emmetropes for response profiles in comparison to matched control groups. They found responses to the all-cue blur / disparity / proximal (BDP) condition suggested appropriate convergence and accommodation when changing from distance to nearer fixation. Lower response gains were found using impoverished targets and were generally due to poorer responses to near targets and not over-response to distant targets. In non-strabismic subjects they found typical slight accommodation lag for near. Accommodation lag and shallow accommodation were common in strabismic subjects also and particularly in accommodative esotropias with more vergence associated with each unit of accommodation. Children with constant esotropia with weak binocular vision showed very even cue use profiles with no clear pattern of cue use behaviour.

Accommodation and vergence response gains to different near cues characterize specific esotropes.
Horwood AM, Riddell PM.
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Fiona Rowe (Prof)

Institute of Population Health, University of Liverpool, UK.

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