The aim of this clinical retrospective comparative study was to assess the possible relationship between arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AAION) and non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) with blood platelet parameters and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). The medical records of 12 patients with AAION, 33 patients with NAION and 35 healthy subjects were examined. The mean platelet volume (MPV), and the platelet distribution width (PDW) are markers of subclinical platelet activation and were evaluated in this study. In addition platelecrit (PCT) was analysed, which is an indicator of the number of circulating platelets in a unit volume of blood. MPV, PDW and PCT values showed marked elevation in AAION and NAION groups compared with the control group. The mean NLR was statistically significantly higher only in the AAION group compared to the NAION and control groups, suggesting that platelet function plays an important role in AIONs and NLR might be used to differentiate AAION from NAION.