This author retrospectively analysed the correlation between internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and the occurrence of a postoperative epiretinal membrane (ERM) in patients who underwent vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD). There were 135 medical records investigated. Seventy patients underwent ILM peeling, 65 did not. Patients found to have an ERM at the time of surgery were excluded. At 12 month follow-up, no ERM was identified in the ILM peel group, whereas ERM was observed in 14 of 65 patients in the non ILM peel group. Removing the ILM can remove the ERM precursor cells from the retinal surface. ERM occurred in 12 of the 14 patients (85.7%) within three months of the RD surgery. The authors found no significant correlation between ERM development and age, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at initial diagnosis, macular involvement, break location, number, shape, RD extent, or gas type in non-ILM peeling patients. Although ILM peeling has been shown to prevent ERM formation post RD repair, the authors conclude that a longer term prospective study with a greater number of patients is needed to provide evidence that ILM peeling in all patients is beneficial.