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The authors aimed to review all cases of DRS presenting to a tertiary paediatric eye clinic in South Africa during a 20-year period. This was a retrospective study in Cape Town involving 120 patents (80 mixed race, 24 black and 16 white). Cases were 54% female, 63% type 1, 22% type 2, 15% type 3, 46% affecting the left eye, 40% right eye and 14% bilateral. Average age at presentation was 34.2 months (1-144), 4.2% had a positive family history of strabismus and one had a family history of DRS. Associated congenital systemic abnormalities occurred in one case consisting of Goldenhar’s, congenital heart defects, cleft palate, club foot, dysmorphism and hydrocephalus. On ocular examination, strabismus in primary gaze was present in 43%. Thirty-four percent underwent surgery. Subset analysis showed variations across different ethnic groups. In black cases, males were more common, type 2 was more prevalent and surgery was required more often. In mixed race cases, type 2 was more common than type 3, type 1 was most common and females were more affected. More studies are needed to clarify the role of race as a potential risk factor for DRS.

Duane’s retraction syndrome in a cohort of South African children: a 20-year clinic-based review.
Steyn A, Grotte R, Tinley C.
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Fiona Rowe (Prof)

Institute of Population Health, University of Liverpool, UK.

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