The pathological basis of PVR is not clearly understood and there are no effective medications targeting this condition. This cross-sectional study looked at the possible association of anti-retinal antibodies with patients with PVR and retinal detachment (RD). Aqueous and vitreous samples were taken from patients with retinal detachment, PVR or macular hole (MH). Total protein (TP), immunoglobulin G levels (IgG) and anti-retinal antibody levels were measured. IgG levels were higher in both aqueous and vitreous samples of patients with PVR compared to MH. IgG was also higher in PVR than RD patients in aqueous but not vitreous. Levels of TP and anti-retinal antibodies were similar in all groups. There was also no association between duration of onset of PVR or RD and the levels of any measurements in either aqueous or vitreous. A higher level of anti-retinal antibodies was found to be correlated with increased macular thickness, including cystoid macular oedema. The authors postulate that although the development of RD or PVR does not induce anti-retinal antibody production in the vitreous, pre-existing anti-retinal antibodies in the vitreous may compromise macular structures perhaps via inflammatory upregulation.