Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) imaging was undertaken with four infantile esotropia (IE) patients and nine controls. All with IE showed an asymmetrical distribution of callosal fibres when comparing two hemispheres. Many fibres terminated near the tips of the occipital cortices. Control subjects tended to show fibres terminating on the medial aspect of the calcarine sulcus of both hemispheres. In IE, increased numbers of fibres appeared along the medial aspect of one hemisphere only. Contralaterally, the majority of fibres were directed to the occipital tip. The number of callosal fibres linking both visual cortical areas between hemispheres was higher for IE. The authors propose a likely role of the corpus callosum in the development of human binocular vision.