This is a retrospective, population-based, case-control study from the general Kaiser Hawaii population. Over a two year period (1 January 2006 to 31 December 2007), there were 100 confirmed incident cases of uveitis. Two control groups were created, with 522 randomly selected controls from the general Kaiser Hawaii population, as well as 528 randomly selected controls from the Kaiser Hawaii ophthalmology clinic. The diagnosis of uveitis was retrospectively confirmed by a fellowship-trained uveitis ophthalmologist. Current smokers were found to have greater odds of developing non-infectious uveitis when compared to never smokers in both the general control group (OR 2.10; P=0.02) and the ophthalmology control group (OR 2.96; P=0.001). There was no association between infectious uveitis and smoking status. This population-based study provides an additional body of evidence that points towards smoking being significantly associated with incident uveitis.