This study aimed to determine the prevalence and type of ametropia in Yunnan multi-ethnic regions. The study included 24,296 students aged 7-12 years (90.99%) in the study area of five different regions. There were 51% males and 32.2% minorities. Ametropia was present in 3406 (19%) which averaged -2.50D (right) and -2.25D (left). 77.5% had no correction; 18% were myopic, 0.8% hypermetropic and 0.2% mixed. Girls were more myopic than boys and myopia increased with age. A lower myopic prevalence was found and attributed to an under-developed economy and education, sufficient outdoor illumination and a rural village environment. Three quarters had never had refractive correction which needs to feed to government screening strategies for eye health.