This review paper summarises the main causes and neural mechanisms that characterise amblyopia. The authors analysed neuroanatomical, neurophysiological and electrophysiological studies in the literature to better understand actual treatment regimens and evaluate new therapeutic possibilities. They considered causes of strabismus, anisometropia and deprivation amblyopia. Treatment options included surgical correction of strabismus, cataract and ptosis, refractive correction, occlusion and penalisation, perceptual learning, transcranial magnetic stimulation and binocular treatment. Drug therapies included Carbidopa-Levodopa, phenylethylamine, citicoline and Bicuculline. These substances may be able to promote the recovery of visual function in partially sighted patients and make a more stable and long-lasting treatment.