The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of amblyopia in children aged 4 to 10 years in Bulgaria. This cross-section epidemiology study had proportional stratified sample methods across five cities in Western Bulgaria. Of 1675 children, 42 (2.5%) had amblyopia; three strabismic, 25 anisometropic, 13 isometric and one stimulus deprivation. Amblyopia was unilateral in 27 and bilateral in 15. Seventeen children were older than seven years. Fifteen had absent stereopsis. Eleven had severe amblyopia of 20/100-20/400. Prevalence of amblyopia correlates well with other studies. Lack of a national vision screening programme likely accounts for the late diagnosis of some amblyopic cases.