Iranian prevalence of strabismus and heterophoria

Previous studies in parts of Iran report a childhood prevalence of strabismus of 1.2 to 2.3%. The authors aimed to evaluate the prevalence of strabismus in underserved rural areas of Iran in all age groups. In 2015 they conducted a...

Fusion vergence measures

The purpose of this study was to compare fusional vergence measurements between orthophoria, esophoria and exophoria and determine the strength of correlation between fusional vergence and angle of deviation. This was a cross-section study of 530 children aged six to...

Association of asthenopia and heterophoria

Heterophoria varies over time and asthenopic symptoms may be greater when the heterophoria is larger. Thus a close intra-individual correlation may exist between heterophoria and discomfort during reading. The authors investigated the variability of both parameters in 20 individuals who...