Anatomical variations of the nasolacrimal system

The authors report a retrospective observational case series of 734 dacryocystography images; 689 from adult patients and 45 from paediatric patients. Of these 734 images, 35 (4.8%) were found to have an anatomical variant where the nasolacrimal duct emerged from...

Adjuvant radiotherapy in orbital malignancy

This is a retrospective review of high dose volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) for adjuvant treatment of patients with orbital malignancy who had already undergone local excision or exenteration. VMAT differs from conventional external beam radiotherapy in that it is...

How to reconstruct an upper lid defect

In this 10-year review, the authors look at published techniques for repairing upper lid defects and their respective success. Of the 10 studies included in this paper, they divide the techniques described within to bridging and non-bridging. Bridging techniques tend...

Hidden spread of sebaceous cell carcinoma

This was a review of 29 patients who had undergone orbital exenteration for sebaceous cell carcinoma. Prompted by the increasing use of topical treatments for intraepithelial disease, the authors were keen to discover the frequency of spread of tumour cells...

Transconjunctival eyelid weight insertion

This is a description of a new surgical technique to insert upper lid weights via a posterior, transconjunctival route. Following local anaesthetic, the upper lid was everted over a Desmarres retractor with a silk traction suture. A 5mm high central...

COVID-related mucormycosis

The authors report a retrospective case-control study of 73 patients with COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) between 1st March and 30th May 2021. They compared various factors between the two groups – patients who survived CAM (47 [64%]) and those that...

The incidence of sympathetic ophthalmia

In this meta-analysis, the authors looked at 24 retrospective studies to determine the incidence of sympathetic ophthalmia following open globe injury amongst adult and paediatric populations. The year of publication of studies included ranged from 1972-2019, and with broad search...

Frontalis muscle flap for congenital ptosis

This is a review of 43 patients (47 eyes) with severe congenital ptosis who underwent a suspension procedure using a frontalis flap technique. The average age of patients was 6 +/-2.5 years, and all had a severe ptosis with an...

Diplopia after orbital decompression

This is a review of patients undergoing a balanced two-wall and fat orbital decompression to identify risk factors for new onset diplopia. Standard decompression techniques were used, but as the surgery was conducted by ENT surgeons, the medial walls were...

Transcanalicular diode laser-assisted DCR: success rates and factors for success

This study aimed to evaluate the success rates of transcanalicular diode laser-assisted dacryocystorhinostomy (TCL-DCR) during three years of follow-up and to find clinical factors that influence surgical outcomes. Major outcomes were defined as a patent neo-ostium tested by irrigation (anatomical...

One-week intubation in external dacryocystorhinostomy

Whether to routinely intubate or not in dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) surgery has been a subject of controversy among lacrimal surgeons. Similarly, if intubated the timing of removal of stent is not standard. Here, the authors carried out a survey of their...

Sebaceous gland carcinoma

This is a review of 241 patients diagnosed with periocular sebaceous gland carcinoma which investigates whether age at presentation influences either the clinical presentation or the outcomes of treatment. Twelve percent of patients were classified as young (<40 years old),...