Breakthroughs in the genetics of angle-closure glaucoma

Angle closure glaucoma (ACG) is not widely known to be a familial condition, yet the recent explosion of genetic data and large scale genome wide investigations have confirmed at least 13 genetic loci associated with ACG [1], and provided some...

The structure function relationship in glaucoma

Chronic open angle glaucoma (COAG) is the second most common cause of blindness worldwide. It is diagnosed on the basis of three clinical signs, raised intraocular pressure (IOP), visual field (VF) defects and structural changes to the optic nerve head...

Intraocular lens technology to deliver enhanced optical performance after cataract refractive surgery

Modern cataract surgery aims to provide patients with the best possible visual outcome with the least dependence on spectacles and minimal or no complications and to treat both cataract and refractive errors with a single procedure. Phacoemulsification is the standard...

Do steroids prevent progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR)?

There is continuing debate on the merits of pan-retinal photocoagulation (PRP) for severe pre-proliferative and proliferative DR versus the newer therapies that inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This has been hotly debated [1] following the publication of findings from...

Non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION): a review

Ischaemic optic neuropathy (ION) is the commonest adult optic neuropathy encountered today in our ageing population, is a common cause of irreversible visual loss and is usually associated with underlying vascular disease. The condition is classified as follows: (a) Anterior...

Retinoblastoma management update (part 2): treatment, screening and surveillance, long-term follow-up and new developments

Retinoblastoma treatment requires significant multidisciplinary input, but early detection through raising awareness remains key to improving outcomes. In the second article of a two-part series, Manoj Parulekar discusses retinoblastoma management, screening and research. This article has been published in two...

Retinoblastoma management update (part 1): clinical features, diagnosis and genetics

The first of a two part series, this article will discuss the clinical features, diagnosis and genetic aspects of retinoblastoma. Manoj Parulekar is based at Birmingham Children’s Hospital, one of the two designated national retinoblastoma and paediatric ocular oncology treatment...

An update on inherited retinal disorders (part 2): Approaches to therapy for IRDs

Part 1 of this topic can be found here There are currently no proven cures for inherited retinal disease (IRD). However, multiple avenues of research are being investigated to better understand disease mechanisms and trial potential therapies that may slow...

25 years of OCT

David Huang first described optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 1991, in his seminal paper on the subject in Science. This method developed the work of others on ophthalmic interferometry, which essentially showed that measuring reflected light could be used to...

Sickle cell eye disease: an overview of vitreoretinal complications and their surgical management

Sickle cell disease is the most common genetic disorder worldwide and is associated with lifelong anaemia, intermittent pain and multi-organ morbidity. Ocular involvement can be associated with significant visual impairment due to the complications of proliferative sickle retinopathy (PSR). Occasionally...

What’s new in wet AMD papers?

Paper presentations on neovascular (‘wet’) age-related macular degeneration (AMD) from the 16th European Society of Retina Specialists Congress, Copenhagen, September 2016, outline recent research directions evaluating the impact of vision loss on key health domains, patient preferences in the process...

An update on inherited retinal disorders (part 1) – overview and assessment of inherited retinal disease

Part 2 of this topic can be found here Inherited Retinal Disease (IRD) is the leading cause of blindness certification in the working age population (age 16-64 years) in England and Wales and the second most common in childhood [1]....