Herpes zoster ophthalmicus: a clinician’s perspective

Introduction Herpes zoster, commonly known as shingles, is caused by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). The term herpes is derived from a Greek work, herpein, which means ‘creeping’ and the word zoster means a belt or a girdle...

Preparing for modern ophthalmic surgical training as a trainee

As a trainee in ophthalmology, every day you are learning more and more about the specialty. In addition, you will most likely be exploring the vast array of subspecialties that ophthalmology has to offer, and would probably be trying to...

Ophthalmology in a War Zone: an interview with Dr Volodymyr Melnyk

It is now nine months since the full-scale Russian invasion of Ukraine commenced in late February 2022, with Putin announcing a “special military operation” to “denazify and demilitarise” Ukraine. The rest of the world, however, saw it for what it...

How to be ‘appy’ on call: a brief guide to mobile phone applications for the on-call ophthalmologist

One of the unexpected outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic has been an increased reliance and integration of computer technology within hospital medicine. The need for stricter infection control policies during and after lockdown has seen a boom in technology utilisation....

Ocular manifestations of multiple sclerosis: an overview

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), in which there is dissemination of lesions in time (two or more clinical events) and space (multiple lesions seen on brain and spinal imaging). The pathophysiology...

Post-stroke visual impairment: how big is the problem, how do we identify it, what we can do about it, and why does it matter?

In the UK, 100,000 new strokes occur each year, with 1.3 million stroke survivors [1]. This article will focus on post-stroke visual impairment, discussing topics of how common it is, how it can be detected, possible management options and how...

Exploiting nature’s randomised trials of eye disease

Confounding and reverse causation in observational ophthalmic epidemiology Traditional observational studies are inherently limited in establishing a causal effect of an exposure on an outcome of interest. One fundamental limitation is confounding, whereby causation is incorrectly attributed to a third...

My Top Five: Duke Elder Undergraduate Ophthalmology Prize Exam Tips

The prestigious Duke Elder Undergraduate Ophthalmology exam in the UK is aimed at medical students who have completed their ophthalmology undergraduate teaching but is open to all medical undergraduates provided they have not graduated at the time of the examination....

Bilateral eye pain after contact lens wear: an inadvertent case of chemical eye injury

Introduction There are around 4.1 million contact lens wearers in the UK [1]. While the vast majority of them do not experience any complications, over the past years there have been cases of acanthamoeba keratitis and multiple retained contact lenses...

Avoiding investigations through history taking and examinations to differentiate serious from comparably benign aetiology

*Joint first authors. Introduction Anisocoria can be a sign of neurological deficit, necessitating numerous investigations [1]. This case report explores how expensive and time-consuming investigations can be avoided by thorough history taking and examination to differentiate serious from comparably benign...

Advances in the understanding, diagnostic and treatment of keratoconus

*Joint first authors Keratoconus is a bilateral and asymmetric eye condition in which the cornea’s structure is affected and thinned, causing a cone-shaped bulge to develop. This results in progressive loss of vision and impairs the ability of the eye...

Nano-ophthalmology paves a new path in the future of eyecare

Introduction The treatments of ocular conditions in the field of ophthalmology varies from topical to surgical procedures. The field of nanotechnology is one of the fast-growing fields of medicine, which plays an important role in turning the impossibilities of the...