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What not to miss in neuro-ophthalmology Part 1

Neuro-ophthalmology is a complex and difficult subspecialty in ophthalmology. It has several connections to neurology, neuro-surgery, rheumatology as well as many other medical specialties. Working in an multidisciplinary team (MDT) environment is key to success in this subspecialty as mistakes...

Unravelling ocular motility

Ocular motility can often be a slightly abstract concept during the earlier years of ophthalmology training. A large variance on what embodies normality; mythical concepts like fusion and binocular vision, examination techniques that can be fiddly, and complex neuroanatomy all...

Aug/Sep 2018 Quiz

History A seven-year-old girl presented with a presumed papillomatous lesion on right inferior fornix (Figure 1). Her parents said the lesion was increasing in size for two weeks. CT scans (Figure 2) revealed a lesion occupying the right medial canthus....

Quiz Aug/Sep 2022

History A 58-year-old female patient was referred with a 2-year history, gradually enlarging, painless left upper lid lump. There was no bleeding or ulceration. She had no other eye symptoms and no other skin lesions. Her past medical history included:...

Triamcinolone (TA) deposits following subcutaneous injection to treat chalazion

Chalazia are chronic lipogranulomatous inflammations of the eyelid secondary to a blocked meibomian gland. Whilst most resolve spontaneously, certain chalazia warrant treatment. Options include incision and curettage (I&C), lesion excision, intralesional steroid injections, and botox injections [1]. I&C is usually...

Fusion amplitude with Bagolini glasses

The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between the horizontal prism fusion amplitude measured with and without the Bagolini striated glasses (BSG) in 52 young adults. Subjects had a mean age of 21.06 years,...

Ointment related granulomas post-blepharoplasty

This is a retrospective review of eight patients who developed granulomatous masses after lower lid blepharoplasty. All patients had sutureless bilateral trans-conjunctival surgery, and lubricating ointment was instilled into the inferior fornix postoperatively for two days. Painless lower lid masses...

The dynamic nature of orbital cavernous haemangiomas

This paper seeks to address the question of how much do orbital cavernous haemangiomas actually change over time, and if there are any identifiable factors which can predict which lesions will grow and which will remain stable. In particular, if...

Automated grading of diabetic retinopathy: is it possible?

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a frequent microvascular complication of diabetes and a leading cause of blindness worldwide. However, much of this diabetic blindness can be delayed or even prevented with timely diagnosis and proper treatment. For this reason, regular screening...

Macular atrophy with aflibercept

The authors of this paper set out to investigate the prevalence of macular atrophy in treatment-naive patients with neovascular AMD undergoing aflibercept monotherapy (three monthly loading injections followed by subsequent treatment every two months). Case notes over a three year...

Ocular toxoplasmosis

This is a retrospective study of 106 patients between March 2011 and June 2018, of 37 IgM + group and 69 IgM - group of patients. The clinical features, demographics of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) were studied according to...

Uveitis ocular toxoplasmosis

This is a retrospective study of 106 patients between March 2011 and June 2018, of 37 IgM +group and 69 IgM - group of patients. The clinical features, demographics of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) were studied according to the...