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Myopia-related strabismus – heavy eye syndrome

Introduction Myopia can be associated with any type of strabismus, but high myopia has increased frequency of esotropia and vertical heterotropia. The incidence and severity of the strabismus increases with the degree of myopia and age of the patient. Classification...


Ocular manifestations of multiple sclerosis: an overview

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), in which there is dissemination of lesions in time (two or more clinical events) and space (multiple lesions seen on brain and spinal imaging). The pathophysiology...


Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs)

The term congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder (CCDD) was introduced by Gutowski et al. in 2003 to describe strabismus conditions that result from developmental error in innervation of some of the extraocular muscles. Examples of these conditions include Duane’s syndrome and...