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718 results found

Radiation retinopathy

The authors review the current treatment options for this condition. Radiation retinopathy (RR) occurs as a complication after exposure to any type of radiation (external beam, plaque brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery) in the orbital or adnexal region. These include nasopharyngeal...

Headaches in ophthalmology (part 1)

Ophthalmologists see a large number of patients with headaches or facial pain in the ophthalmic outpatient clinics or in emergency clinics. Over two articles, I will discuss several causes of headaches, ocular manifestations and proposed management and referral options. It...

Serology testing in periocular inflammatory disease

This is a review article of serological tests in thyroid eye disease, IgG4-related disease and myasthenia gravis. The authors provide an overview of the current serology with a brief description of how they relate to the pathogenesis of each condition....

Mast cells in Graves’ ophthalmopathy

Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is a potentially sight-threatening ocular disease, occurring in patients with hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease. Also known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, GO is characterised by orbital infiltration by immune cells including macrophages, T cells and plasma cells, which...

Ocular manifestations of multiple sclerosis: an overview

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), in which there is dissemination of lesions in time (two or more clinical events) and space (multiple lesions seen on brain and spinal imaging). The pathophysiology...

Needling procedure for failed bleb

The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of needling with 5-FU after failed filtering procedures in the paediatric population. This was a retrospective review of 324 filtration surgeries in 265 children with 55 eyes (16.9%) undergoing needling...

Finasteride and central serous chorioretinopathy

The pathophysiology of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is complex and has not been fully elucidated. Suggested theories include hyperpermeability and increased hydrostatic pressure in the choroidal vasculature, which creates RPE detachments overwhelming the RPE barrier function, leading to accumulation of...

A review of neuro and retinal imaging findings in Alzheimer’s disease

The authors present a systematic review with the aim of assessing the relationship between retinal and cerebral changes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment and pre-clinical AD. A total of 23 articles met the inclusion criteria of the review,...

Understanding spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS): what do we know?

Introduction Formerly known as visual impairment and intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP), space-related neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) is defined by a collection of ophthalmic and neurological findings in astronauts after long-term spaceflight [1]. Changes in the eyeball, such as hyperopic shift, during...

Traumatic ‘toy’ gun injury leading to permanent vision loss

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a progressive, inherited disorder of connective tissue that affects the skin, cardiovascular system and retina. Ocular manifestations of the disease are related to Bruch’s membrane, a thin elastic tissue layer located between the retinal pigment epithelium...

Accommodation in children

The purpose of this pilot study was to establish typical accommodative responses at 1/3m in children to targets of varying complexity and visual / cognitive demand. This was a study of 18 children aged six to seven years and six...

Cancer associated retinopathy

Abdul Muhyemin Tarin reviews the presentation, pathophysiology and management of this paraneoplastic syndrome. Case presentation A 60-year-old hypermetropic female patient presented with several months’ history of painless blurred vision. Visual acuity (VA) was 6/24 and 6/9-1 in right and left...