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Diabetic polyneuropathy and risk of developing diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy are widely classified as microvascular complications of diabetes. DPN, which may cause complete sensation loss, is another common complication of DM. The DPN-related diminished sensation presents a significant risk factor for...

Management of proliferative diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness in the working-age population. Due to the worsening global epidemic of diabetes, the incidence of morbidity caused by the disease is set to increase [1]. The prevalence of diabetes in the UK...

A possible biomarker for diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common form of diabetic eye disease, characterised by exudates, microaneurysms and haemorrhage. Early diagnosis is crucial for preventing visual loss. The risk of developing diabetic retinopathy is known to increase with age as well...

Diabetic Macular Oedema

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that affects the metabolism of all three categories of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. This condition is characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia [1]. This can cause end organ damage. The estimated worldwide diabetes prevalence for 2010...

Treatment of diabetic macular oedema

Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is a common complication associated with diabetic retinopathy, and the most common cause of visual impairment in diabetes [1]. With predicted rising levels of diabetes (in England by 2025 the estimated population with diabetes will be...

OCT in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

This report set out to describe the anatomical relationships between retinal neovascular complexes (NVC), the posterior vitreous, and the vitreoretinal interface in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy using spectral domain OCT. The following was recorded for each NVC 1) posterior...

Medical management and diabetic retinopathy progression

The ACCORD Eye Study was designed to evaluate the benefit of intensive glycaemic control (HbA1c <6.0% vs 7.0-7.9%), intensive systolic blood pressure control (<120mmHg vs. <140mmHg), and combined fenofibrate and simvastatin therapy in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy....

Inflammation and microvascular changes in diabetic retinopathy

Studies have shown that neurodegeneration and inflammation in the retina start early in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and can be present before the latter is clinically evident. The aim of this retrospective review of 99 diabetic patients was to evaluate retinal...

Automated grading of diabetic retinopathy: is it possible?

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a frequent microvascular complication of diabetes and a leading cause of blindness worldwide. However, much of this diabetic blindness can be delayed or even prevented with timely diagnosis and proper treatment. For this reason, regular screening...

Myopia-protective against diabetic retinopathy

This meta-analysis evaluates the current evidence of the relationship between myopia and diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk. A systematic search was performed up to April 2015. Three models were used to assess the association between myopia and risk of DR: axial...

Intravitreal aflibercept for diabetic macular oedema

The VISTA and VIVID randomised phase 3 trial were designed to compare the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept injections versus laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular oedema (DMO). A total of 872 patients with centrally involving DMO were recruited, and...

Management of diabetic macular oedema (DMO)

The authors present guidelines on current diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the management of DMO. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are recommended before starting treatment to help diagnose and stage DMO, and can be repeated if there...