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Diagnosis and management of IV cranial nerve palsy

Aetiology: Trochlear nerve palsy can be divided into acute or congenital. Congenital trochlear nerve palsy is usually noted in childhood with development of abnormal head posture. Various pathologies can lead to acute IV nerve palsy, most commonly trauma. Other causes...

Nystagmus and associated diagnosis

Patients with nystagmus attending a Low Vision clinic in Sweden were included in this study. Medical records were reviewed to exclude those with general diagnoses that could explain the nystagmus. The remaining group of patients underwent subjective refraction, retinoscopy, ocular...

Diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis

This review article provides an update on the methods diagnosing ocular tuberculosis (TB), the difficulties in making the diagnosis and makes recommendations to a more accurate diagnosis by combining the available diagnostic tests. Today ocular TB remains a presumptive clinical...

Friendly felines and a spot diagnosis

A nine-year-old girl presented to me in eye casualty with a three-week history of blurred vision in her left eye. Otherwise she was apparently well, with no past ophthalmic, medical, drug or relevant family history. Visual acuity was 6/4 right...

Ocular Dirofilariasis: a diagnosis on the rise?

Dirofilaria repens is one of 40 species of Dirofilaria. It is a zoonotic filarial nematode that commonly impacts dogs, however, human infection can occur through affected organs like skin, lung and eyes [1]. Although, there have been case reports of...

Identification and diagnosis of thalamic haemorrhage

This paper presents a case of thalamic haemorrhage and discusses clinical findings, providing valuable insight into signs clinicians need to look for. The case presented is of a 76-year-old female who developed left hemiplegia and hemi anaesthesia. Ocular motility testing...

A standardised strategy for uveitis etiological diagnosis

This was a prospective, non-inferiority, multicentre randomised control trial, which aimed to assess the effectiveness of a standardised approach in the etiological diagnosis of uveitis versus an open strategy, where clinicians could perform any test. The authors developed their standardised...

Differential diagnosis in cases of suspected neuroretinitis

Neuroretinitis is a form of optic neuropathy typically characterised by acute unilateral visual loss with optic disc oedema and macular exudates arranged in a star figure around the fovea (complete or partial star). The purpose of this study was to...

Diagnosis and management of solitary fibrous tumour

This is a retrospective review of 21 patients diagnosed with solitary fibrous tumour of the orbit between 1996 and 2018 at a single centre. The authors reviewed the clinical presentation, management and course of the disease and reanalysed the histopathology...

Diagnosis of amiodarone-associated optic neuropathy

Amiodarone is a widely used anti-arrhythmic drug. Several case reports describe optic neuropathy which has been linked to its use. This case series discusses the diagnosis of amiodarone-associated optic neuropathy (AAON) and its potential impact on cardiac therapy. The authors...

Differential diagnosis of inflammatory optic neuritis

The authors present the differential diagnosis of inflammatory optic neuritis (ON) to include multiple sclerosis, infectious optic neuritis, systemic disease and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). The features of ON for the varying aetiologies are detailed including incidence and overlap. In acute...

Diagnosis and management of orbital vascular malformations

This is an authoritative review of a controversial and difficult clinical area. The authors have experience of over 350 cases and provide a well-structured review of the classification and management of orbital vascular malformations. They emphasise the need to understand...